Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:55:58

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part5
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2CDROM.txt  rev064 July 2003


 001- What do I need to get/do to use Music and Data CD's on my GS?
 002- What do I need discQuest for?
 003- How can I back up my files on write-able CD-ROM?
 004- Is a special driver needed for a Toshiba External 2X CD-ROM?
 005- How can I get sound from my Apple HSS card + CD300 CD-ROM?
 006- Where can I buy CD-ROM discs for the Apple II?
 007- Where can I find more info on CD-ROM drives, products, etc.?
 008- Where can I find out more about CD-ROM recording?

From: Rubywand, Jawaid Bazyar, Tony Diaz, George Rentovich, Wayne Stewart

001- What do I need to use regular CD Music Discs and access
     data discs (like the Golden Orchard CD) on my Apple IIgs?

     What you need is ...

1- RAMFast, Apple, or other SCSI interface card.  The Slot in which the card is located must be set to "Your Card" (e.g. via the Control Panel).

Note 1: Today, SCSI devices normally expect that a "termination voltage" will be supplied by the SCSI interface card. RamFAST does this; but, most other cards do not. If you have such a card and have a hard disk connected and working, then, there should be no problem-- either the hard disk is supplying the voltage or the card has been modified. Otherwise, be sure to obtain information on the needed modification. (For the Apple Hi-Speed SCSI card termination power mod, see the Hard Disk and SCSI FAQs in fil
e Csa2HDNSCSI.txt.)

Note 2: A version 1.01 ZipGS card needs to be upgraded to work with RamFAST.

2- External CD-ROM disc drive which your SCSI card supports.

The Apple Hi-Speed SCSI card is known to work with ...

Apple CD-150
Apple CD-SC+
Pioneer DRM-600.

The RamFAST is known to work with many drives, including any "SCSI Standard" drive and practically any NEC or Texel. Some specific models are ...

Apple CD-150
Apple CD-300
Nec CDR38
Nec CDR25
Nec CDR74
Nec CDR84
Nec CDR-501
Nec CDR-502 (reads CDs fine but the front bezel music playing controls
  don't work when connected to a RamFAST)
Philips CM425A
Pioneer DM600 (which is a 6 disc CD changer)
Pioneer DR-U06S (slot loading)
Sony CDU8002
Sony CDU8003
Sony CDU555S
Texel DM3X1S
Texel DM3028
Texel DM5028
Toshiba 3401
Toshiba XM-3501
Toshiba XM640LB (40speed)

Note 1: Check to be sure that the SCSI device number of your CD-ROM drive does not conflict with the number for your hard disk, Zip Drive, etc.. Each device on the SCSI chain should have a different number, usually in the range 1-6. #6 is usually reserved for the device you wish to boot, such as a hard disk. (A drive's SCSI number is usually set via a switch on the back.)  SCSI number does not need to relate to position on the chain.

Note 2: The last device on the SCSI chain (i.e. the drive which is physically at the end of the chain) should have its Termination set to ON and Termination for other SCSI devices shoud be set to OFF. If your CD-ROM Drive is the only SCSI device, Termination should be ON. (Actually, a SCSI interface card may be able to handle two devices with Termination set to ON. However, you are likely to have problems if the last device on the chain has Termination set OFF.)

3- A SCSI cable. Common SCSI plug/socket sizes are 50-pin and 25-pin. Get a cable which matches your CD-ROM drive and the device you plan to plug into (i.e. a SCSI hard disk, Zip Drive, ..., or your SCSI interface card).

4- To hear music played from a CD, Stereo headphones, speakers, or hi-fi cables need to be plugged into the CD ROM drive. Most drives have a mini- Stereo socket in the front. To fit the socket, the plug for your headphones, etc. must be a Stereo plug.

5- A Driver file which matches your interface card. For RamFAST, it is Ramfast.Driver. For Apple SCSI cards it is SCSI.Manager and SCSICD.Driver. The Driver file(s) should be in the SYSTEM/DRIVERS/ folder (i.e. the DRIVERS folder in the SYSTEM folder).  To avoid conflicts, RamFAST users should remove SCSI.Manager, SCSICD.Driver, and other Apple "SCSI ..." drivers from the SYSTEM/DRIVERS/ folder.

6- In order to play standard Music CD's via your computer, you should have the following:

     o A Media Driver which matches your CD-ROM drive. For example, RF.NEC is a driver supplied with RamFAST which works with NEC drives. The Media Driver should be in the SYSTEM/DRIVERS/MEDIA.CONTROL/ folder.

     o A standard System 6 control panel file (i.e. a "CDEV") named "MediaControl". MediaControl should be in the SYSTEM/CDEVS/ folder

     o A standard System 6 media control New Desk Accessory file (i.e. an "NDA") named "MediaControl.DA". MediaControl.DA should be in the SYSTEM/DESK.ACCS/ folder.

7- In order to access files on data CD-ROM discs (like DigiSoft Innovation's Golden Orchard CD), the standard System 6 High Sierra file system translator file (HS.FST) should be in the SYSTEM/FSTS folder. This lets you read ISO 9660 format data CD-ROM discs. You should already have the ProDOS FST (PRO.FST) in the same folder. This lets you read ProDOS partitions which may be included along with ISO 9660 partitions on a data CD-ROM disc.

     Once the above items are checked, Shut Down your IIgs. Turn it OFF. Turn OFF the CD ROM drive. Wait 10-20 seconds. Turn ON the CD ROM Drive. Wait a few seconds and turn ON your IIgs. Boot System 6.01.

     Your SCSI card manual and/or information supplied by the CD-ROM drive seller is the best guide for doing any necessary setup chores.  If a SCSI hard disk or Zip Drive is already connected and working, it's likely that no special setup will be necessary.

Note: If the CD-ROM drive is the only SCSI device on the chain and you are using a RamFAST along with a ZipGS accelerator, be sure to run RAMFAST.SYSTEM after booting in order to change at least one setting. You want to click [O]ptions and set "TransWarpGS" to "NO".

Playing a Music CD

     Click on Control Panels in the Apple Menu. Select the Media Ctrl control panel. I have "1" for Media Channel, "RF.NEC" (the name of the driver) for Media Device, and "GAME PORT" for Port. After entering your settings, close the panel. This will save your setup in a file named "Media.Setup" in the same Media.Control folder which contains your media control driver.

     From the Apple Menu click on Media Controller to show the CD ROM player. Click Channel 1, the name of your CD ROM driver sould show in the player display. Insert a CD. Click Play and adjust the volume on the drive.

Loading Data, Games, etc. from a Data CD

     Startup is the same as described above. It seems to be a good idea to have a data CD in the drive before turning ON the computer. Some drive + card combinations may not go on-line if no CD is present by the time you turn ON the computer. You can experiment to see what works for your particular system.


From: Jason Kettinger

     I've got a Chinon CDA-435 1X speed  (150Kps) SCSI-1 CDROM hooked up to my IIgs using the Apple HS SCSI card, and it works great.  I don't have any encyclopedias, and CD-Audio disks do not get detected; but, the IIgs detects ISO/HFS CD removals and insertions fine without a reboot.


From: Rubywand

002- I've heard of a package called 'discQuest' which is
     supposed to open the way to accessing all sorts of
     commercial CD's. But, if I can play CD music and load
     files from data CD's, what do I need discQuest for?

     Below is a condensed discQuest review. It should help clarify things.

DiscQUEST v1.2.2
 for 2MB IIgs from Sequential Systems
 CD ROM drive, interface, and System 6 or later required;
   hard disk and System 6.01 recommended

     There is a burgeoning library of CD-ROM releases. History of the World from Library Reference is a case in point. discPassage is a PC/Mac interface program which lets a user access text, pictures, and sound tracks on CD's which employ a discPassage database.

     Typically, dP products carry the digital data disc symbol and are labelled "for Mac or multi-media PC" with Mac and PC versions of discPassage included on-disc.

    "Whoa! My IIgs has a CD-ROM reader, SCSI interface, and all the standard System 6.01 drivers. It still can't do much with those disc CD's."

     Right. The basic IIgs setup CAN access data and programs on for-Apple II CD's. If you've added the appropriate Media NDA and Control Panel, your CD-ROM IIgs can also mimic a CD music disc player complete with all of the usual controls. Audio is output directly from the CD-ROM drive to headphones, a hi- fi amp, or a pair of amplified speakers.

    "Fine; but, how do I ask the Family Doctor a question, peruse an encyclopedia, and use other neat CD-ROM data disc products?"

     Actually, with HS.FST in your SYSTEM/FSTs folder, you can click the CD- ROM icon, display folders, and even load TEXT files from discPassage CD's. Your IIgs is 'compatible enough' with ISO 9660 even if some of the PC filetypes are unfamiliar. Still, this kind of access is hardly satisfactory. What you lack is the software key to unlock the discPassage database. Your IIgs cannot run PC or Mac versions of discPassage; but, it CAN run a for-GS database unlocker named "discQuest"!

      How do the systems match-up? Well, I tried out several CD's under discPassage on a 33MHz '486 PC and discQuest on a IIgs with 10Mhz/64K ZipGSx. On the PC you get to see an intro pic (which discQuest skips); and, in one case, a sound file which played fine with discPassage did not work under discQuest.

     As might be expected, pictures come in faster under discPassage because discQuest must often spend extra seconds processing each PC-format image. The larger the graphic and greater the number of colors, the bigger

read more »


Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:55:59

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part7
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2DSKETTE.txt  rev064 July 2003


 001- How many tracks can I use on a 5.25" diskette?
 002- Can I use high-density 3.5" and 5.25" diskettes on my A2?
 003- How can I tell DD from HD diskettes if they are not labeled?
 004- Some old 5.25" disks with splotches don't boot. What gives?
 005- How can I defragment a diskette and what is the speed gain?
 006- Why aren't my old diskettes recognized by GS/OS?
 007- Can I read Apple II diskettes on my PC?
 008- Where the heck can I buy double density 3.5" & 5.25" diskettes?
 009- Where can I find out about different floppy disk formats?
 010- How can I copy disks?
 011- How can I read Apple II 5.25" floppies on a Mac?
 012- Can I create standard 3.5" IIgs diskettes on a Mac?

From: Rubywand

001- How many tracks can I use on a 5.25" diskette? So far,
     I've heard 35, 36, and 40. What's the actual number?

     The standard number of tracks on a 5.25" diskette is set by DOS 3.3 and ProDOS at 35, numbered 0-34 ($00-$22 in hexadecimal).

     The original Disk ][ drive can usually handle 36 tracks with no problem. Newer 5.25" drives can handle 40 tracks.

     Various modified versions of DOS 3.3 allow using 36 tracks and a few allow using 40 tracks. These mods, especially the 36-track versions, were fairly popular before the advent of 3.5" diskettes when an extra track made a noticable difference in capacity. However, unless the extra capacity is vital for some specific application, it is best to stick with 35 tracks in order to retain full compatibility with disk utilities (such as Copy II Plus) and other wares.


002- Can I use high-density 3.5" and 5.25" diskettes on my Apple II?

     I did some magnetization tests on Double Density (800kB) and High Density (1.4MB) diskette surfaces. The tested DD surface produced more than twice the deflection of the tested HD surface. Clearly, there is a big difference in signal levels required to reliably store data on HD vs. DD.

     In fact, 5.25" HD (1.2MB) diskettes will not work at all on Apple Disk ][ drives. The 3.5" HD's may work fine on your 800k drives; or, they may just seem to work fine. Either way, there's no question: a drive optimized for DD will not be optimized for HD. If you'd rather not 'roll the dice' on your software collection, stick with Double Density diskettes.


From: Rubywand, George Rentovich, Mad ATARI user alternate, Joel

003- How can I tell the difference between unlabeled DD and HD diskettes?

     3.5" HD (1.4MB) diskettes come with a square notch in the upper left corner. DD (800kB) 3.5" diskettes do not come with this notch. In the early days of PC computing, some PC users punched or drilled notch holes in DD diskettes and used them as HD diskettes. If a 3.5" diskette has a circular notch in the upper left corner, it is likely to be a DD diskette.

     DD 5.25" (360kB) diskettes look very much like HD 5.25" (1.2MB) diskettes; however, HD diskettes seem to almost never have a hub ring, while DD diskettes usually do. The hub ring may be white paper, etc. and easy to spot or cut from the same material as the diskette and barely noticeable. This difference has been mentioned by Peter Norton (of Norton Utilities fame) in one of his books.

     The hub ring makes it easier for the Apple Disk Drive II and other older DD 5.25" drives to clamp and hold the diskette. Older DD drives also tend to damage the center when there is no hub. If the hub ring of a DD diskette has fallen off due to age, it's a good idea to transfer the contents to a new diskette.

     Otherwise, about the only observable difference is that DD diskette surfaces often exhibit a more brownish cast whereas HD diskette surfaces are generally dark grey or black.

     The surest test for 5.25" diskettes is to place the diskette into an Apple Disk II 5.25" drive and try to do a DOS 3.3 format. If it formats okay, it is almost certainly a DD diskette. (This test will not always work with the newer 40-track drives. Some of these can get through a format with an HD diskette.)


From: Rubywand

004- Recently I found that some of my old 5.25" disks would
     not boot. A check showed splotches etched on the surface
     of the media. What's going on?

     As you may recall, a number of the classier 5.25" diskette brands employed (still employ?) a lubricant on their jacket liners. While the lube worked to reduce drag and noise, it also, evidently, served as a growth medium for a particularly nasty plastic and/or oxide-eating fungus!

     It's probably a good idea to check each of your old diskettes. Immediately backup any diskettes with splotchy discolorations.


005- How can I defragment a diskette and what is the speed gain?

     You can defragment a diskette by doing a File Copy of all files to a blank diskette or blank RAM disk. Files on the copy diskette or RAM disk will be almost completely unfragmented. A whole-disk copy back to the original completes the process. Tests show that this method produces much speedier diskettes than using a utility intended for optimizing hard disks.

     For a nearly full 'workhorse' diskette which has seen may deletions and additions, you can expect the File Copy defragmentation method to yield a 30% to 40% improvement in access speed.


006- Why aren't my MECC and many other old diskettes recognized
     by GS/OS and mounted on the Finder display?

     The problem you mention is fairly common. GS/OS via its FSTs has pretty strict definitions for what qualifies as a valid DOS or ProDOS diskette. For example, perfectly good 36-track DOS 3.3 diskettes will not be mounted by the Finder just because the number of tracks is 36 instead of the expected 35.

     Naturally, copy-protected diskettes have practically no chance of being recognized. Almost certainly, this is the reason the Finder will not mount your MECC disks.

     You can, still, run software from most copy-protected diskettes by just booting them.


From: Chris Norley

007- Can I read Apple II diskettes on my PC?

     A while back I requested some information regarding the reading of Apple II floppies by an PC. There was a hugh response both in solutions and requests for a summary of solutions.


     We have some old data from a small NMR spectrometer that was run from an Apple IIe. The same spectrometer is now run from a DOS machine and we'd like to be able to access the old data from the PC.

     Does anyone know of or possess some utility to allow the data from the 5 1/4" Apple II floppies to be read from the PC? Any hints as to program names, ftp sites, etc. would be greatly appreciated.



Les Ferch

It can't be done with software alone. There is a card called the MatchPoint PC card that will let you read and write Apple II DOS, ProDOS, and CP/M disks on a PC 5.25" 360K drive. We used to have one installed in an XT here and it worked fine.

The other common way of moving the data is to connect an Apple II to a PC using a null modem cable and using comm programs such as Kermit to transfer the data.


Curt Schroeder

It is not possible for a 5.25" PC floppy drive to read Apple II disks.  They use incompatible recording technologies.  Your options are to get your data into an Apple that can write MS-DOS 3.5" disks (Apple IIgs or Macintosh) or transfer via serial link (either via modem or null-modem cable).  The other possibility is to use an Apple II equipped with a PC Transporter and either has a 3.5" drive or 5.25" PC floppy drive(s) attached.


Michael Hoffberg

About a year ago, I picked up card for my ibm made by TrackStar.  It is basically an apple II that sits inside your IBM.  When you enable it, it can boot off an apple drive, it uses the ibm keyboard and monitor.

When I go home I only use it to play moon patrol (I am too lazy to find my other games).

In any case, I think that it is possible to transfer files between the ibm and apple with the card.  I have never tried it though.


Fred R. Opperdoes

Any Apple II (E or GS) owner having an Applied Engineering PC Transporter card is able to do the job easily. It is maybe not easy to find such a person in your neighborhood. Another possibility would be that you ask someone with an Apple IIGS to have your 5 1/4" Dos 3.3 or Prodos disk transcribed to a 3.5" Prodos disk. Every IIGS owner would be able to do so. Files on such disks can then easily be converted to MsDOS files on an MsDOS disk on a Macintosh using the Apple File Exchange Utility that comes with
 every modern Mac.


Leo Connolly

I don't think this is doable.  There are limitations in the PC drive hardware which make it impossible to read Apple II disks.  (And the same is true in reverse, for exactly the same reasons).

I suggest the following.

Transfer the Apple II data to a 3.5" disk.  This is easy on a IIGS if you use a utility such as Copy II Plus.

Use Apple File Convert on a Macintosh to convert the Apple II files to MS-DOS format.  Caution: older versions of this utility cannot handle MS-DOS 3.5" disks, but the newer ones can.

Or: send your data through a modem from the Apple to the PC.


Leonard Erickson

It can't be done without extra hardware. The Apple II didn't use a disk controller chip, it used an odd circuit instead. So, machines using the industry standard controller chips can't read Apple disks.

You'll need a ...

read more »


Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:56:00

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part11
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2GAMES.txt  rev064 July 2003


 001- Where can I get Apple II games, info, and game-creation programs?
 002- What are some games in double-hires?
 003- Which IIgs games will not run on a ROM 3 IIgs?
 004- Where can I find out about A2 Infocom & Infocom-style games?
 005- What games, etc. are on the 'Asimov Want List'?
 006- For disk space used, what is your favorite Apple II game?
 007- Where did the Apple II Game Gods go?
 008- Are there any games which play 'old Apple II' music during action?

From: Rubywand, Zeprfrew, Charles T. Turley, John Beatty,
      Netrunner68, Marc Sira, Swigg, Steve Evans, Jm

001- Where can I get Apple II games, game docs, hints, pics, etc., and
     game-creation programs?

     There are many places you can get Apple II gaming software and information:

o- Local Apple II Users Group (may be part of a Mac Group in your area)

o- Sellers of original and second-hand software (See ads on the comp.sys.apple2.marketplace newsgroup and some of the sites, like KulaSoft, listed later. Also check the list of vendors in the Csa2 FAQs 'Main Hall' file.)

o- Questions/requests posted to comp.sys.apple2 and comp.emulators.apple2

o- Apple II software and information archives on the net (See links for game download and game information sites in Csa21MAIN3.txt Apple II Web Sites.)


From: Thry, Mitchell Spector, Rubywand, Kevin Loesch, John L. Graham,
      Edhel Iaur, Shawn T. Beattie, Kelly Petriew

002- What are some games in double-hires?

     Below is a listing of Apple II games which are entirely or mainly in double-hires.

Air Heart
Bad Dudes
Battle Chess
Black Cauldron
California Games
Card Sharks
Corruption (Text/Dhgr)
Death Sword
Dragon Wars
Global Commander
Gold Rush
Heavy Barrel
Hunt for Red October
Impossible Mission II
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Ikari Warriors II
Into the Eagle's Nest
King's Bounty
King's Quest (I, II, III, IV)
Last Ninja
Legend of Blacksilver
Leisure Suit Larry in the Land of the lounge Lizards
Los Angeles Crackdown
Maniac Mansion
Might & Magic II
Mixed-up Mother Goose
Pipe Dream
Police Quest
Press your Luck
Rad Warrior
Space Quest
Space Quest II
Spy vs Spy III
Star Trek: First Contact
Strategic Conquest
Street Sports Baseball
Street Sports Basketball
Street Sports Football
Street Sports Soccer
Temple of Apshai Trilogy (optional hires or double-hires)
Tetris (Hgr/Dhgr)
The Games : Summer & Winter Edition
Transylvania (Dhgr version)
Victory Road
Universe II
World Games
Zork Zero


From: Sevag

003- Which IIgs games will not run on a ROM 3 IIgs?

     Some older GS games have been converted to run on a ROM 3. These are games that I found to not work (I tried all versions):

MJ Basketball
Shuffle Puck
Captain Blood
Skate Or Die
Star Wizard

and one demo:

Weaky Demo



     I found a version of Streets Sports Soccer that runs on ROM03--its the one without the crack screen on bootup. So that game is gone from the list now.


From: Rubywand

004- Where can I find out about Infocom & Infocom-style games
     I can play on my Apple II?

     A good start is a series of fantasy game articles published, mainly, in the August through November 1999 issues of GS WorldView and since added to from time to. These are now interlinked for easy perusal.

     The articles cover 1990's through early 2000's interactive fantasy competition releases, Infocom's Lost Treasures I and II, a 'missing Lost Treasure', plus some more recent Zork series releases. Coverage includes brief descriptions plus download links. A convenient way to get into the articles is to go to GSWV's Archive at ...

and click on "Infocom & Infocom-type Adventures".


005- What games, etc. are on the 'Asimov Want List'?

     Games and related wares which users have requested be uploaded to Asimov (at ):


 Berzerker Raids
 Car Builder
 Cross Country Canada
 Empire II: Interstellar Sharks (1982)
 Empire III: Armageddon (1984)
 Hot Rod  and  Hot Rod 2
 John Madden Football
 Match Boxes (Broderbund)
 Odell Lake
 Pride and Predjudice
 Rogue Trooper
 Sign of the wolf
 Star Crystal: Episode I - Mertactor: The Volentine Gambit
 Star Warrior
 Starflight 1 and 2
 Think Quick
 Thunder Cloud
 Toy Shop (Broderbund)
 Transportation Transformation
 Wings of the Shadow
 Wizard War


 Genetic Drift  (instructions and hints)
 Three Mile Island


 Apple Intercourse


From: Mookie Harrington, A2MG, Paul Guertin, Tony Turner,Matt Jenkins,
      Donald C. Lee, Dennis Doms, John L, Roy Miller, Jay Edwards,
      Joe Kohn, John Minkov, Michael Crimlisk, Mary Sauer, Dave Althoff,
      Rubywand, A2BOBR, GSMANIAC, Erik Struiksma

006- For the space used on disk, what is your favorite
     Apple II game?

     Here are the results from postings to Csa2, Cea2, and Apple II forums on Delphi:

Ali Baba
Alice in Wonderland
Alien Mind
Balance of Power
Bard's Tale
Bard's Tale II
Boulder Dash
Bounce It
Castle Wolfenstein
Caverns of Freitag
Computer Baseball
Dark Forest
Dark Heart of Uukrul
David's Midnight Magic
Death Sword
Eamon games
Flight Sim II
Infocom text adventures
John Madden Football
Kings Quest I, II, and III
Lady Tut
Legacy of the Ancients
Lode Runner
Marble Madness
Mean 18
Montezuma's Revenge
Moon Patrol
Ms. Pacman
Olympic Decathlon
Panzer Battles
Pick 'N' Pile
Pitfall II
Prince of Persia
Reach for the Stars
Rescue Raiders
Robot War
Robotron 2084
Rocky's Boots
Scott Adams' Adventure games
Sherwood Forest
Silent Service
Space Quest: The Sarien Encounter
Spare Change
Stellar 7
Struggle for Guadalcanal
Super Bunny
Sword of Kadash
The Lurking Horror
Ultima IV
Up 'n Down
Wavy Navy
Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
Wings of Fury
Wizardry I - Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord
Wizardy V
Wolfenstein 3D
Zany Golf
Zork Zero


From: John Romero

007- Where did the Apple II Game Gods go?

Interesting bit of info: about a year and 1/2 ago, i was touring Sculptured Software in Salt Lake City, UT.  I had just finished talking to the Mortal Kombat team and was rounding a corner, passing some offices and i noticed a name on the door, "Peter Ward".  I instantly thought, "NO WAY!".  There was a guy in the office and i said, "Are you Peter Ward???!!"  

The guy said, "No, Peter is at home, sick right now."

Me: "Is that the same Peter Ward that created Black Magic for the Apple //?"

Him: <slight pause>  "Wow. You are the ONLY person i've ever met that knew that. That was a LONG time ago!"

Me: "Oh man, i am a BIG fan of Peter's work. I even have some of his earlier stuff -- South Pacific Quest, remember that one?"

Him: "Nope.  I gotta tell Peter about this!"

I've never heard from Peter though.  

Another interesting tidbit: remember Threshold?  It was THE COOLEST Space Invaders clone ever to grace an Apple // screen (actually it was more of an Astro-Blaster clone).  It was created by Warren Schwader (he also did that Cribbage game that had a bad bug in it.)  Well, back in March 1992, we of id Software travelled to Sierra (Online) to show them a pre-alpha version of Wolfenstein 3D.  Sierra was interested in buying id Software back then (for a very, very CHEAP price!) and we wanted to show them our n
ew 3D technology to get them all juicy.  Well, i was asking Ken Williams if he knew where any old Apple // guys were and he said he had ONE still working at Sierra.  He brought us into a room with an older guy and said, "This is Warren Schwader."  Instantly, i was saying, "We're not worthy!  We're not worthy!  Threshold was a KICK ASS game!  You created a legend!"

Sierra balked at our asking for a $100K advance payment on the buyout, so the deal died and we released Wolfenstein 3D.

That summer of 1992, just after Wolf3D was released, John Carmack and i drove to Kansas City for one of the last A2-Central conferences.  We brought a laptop and a copy of Wolf3d with us because, lo and behold, Tom Weishaar got ahold of Silas Warner (creator of the original Castle Wolfenstein) and had Silas give a seminar.  What a night.  Carmack and i sat out in the hallway for hours talking to Silas and Bill Heineman about all kinds of old A2 stuff.  We have an original Wolf3D manual with Silas' signatur
e on it.  It's framed.  :)

Am i on a roll or what?  I have even more info....

As soon as The Secret of Mana was released, i bought it because i absolutely LOVE Squaresoft's games.  I worship at the altar of Squaresoft. :)  As soon as i plugged the SNES cart in, I just sat to watch the demo. (BTW: always, ALWAYS sit and watch game demos. Lots of work goes into them and sometimes there's very useful stuff there.)  I was reveling in the beautiful music and unfolding Mana Tree graphic when the first line of the credits scrolled up.  "PROGRAMMED BY NASIR."


I was blown away.  If you want to experience the epitome of 65816 game programming after 15 years of practice (5 of

read more »


Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:55:59

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part8
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2ERRLIST.txt  rev064 July 2003

Main Error List

 001- What does error #___ mean?
 002- What does IIgs Diagnostic Self-Test Error Code ___ mean?
 003- What does RamFAST Fatal Memory Fault Error ___ mean?
 004- What is the explanation for getting a ___  error?
 005- Where can I find more information on Apple II series errors?

From: Jeff Hurlburt (in II Alive, 1996 plus updates)

001- What does error #___ mean?

Error Codes

     Codes are in hexadecimal and are listed in numerical order. Except for a few IIgs System Failure codes, the system or sub-system reporting the error is shown along with the error description.

     Most IIgs tool set error 'descriptions'-- like divByZeroErr-- consist of just the error name as published in the Toolbox References. When such an error is reported, the first two digits identify the Tool Set; the last two identify the error# (sometimes this identifies the individual Tool involved in the error). The name and number of each Tool Set which reports errors is identified in the listing by labeling the first error in each Tool Set group.

     Many of the descriptions for 00xx codes refer to GS/OS errors. Usually, these codes have the same (or a very similar) meaning as ProDOS 16 (P16) codes, SmartPort codes, and 8-bit ProDOS 8 (P8) Machine Language Interface (MLI) codes. When there is a significant difference, other meanings are shown.

Note 1: Thanks to information supplied by David Empson several early System Failure Code messages (e.g. "File map destroyed") are now considered to be suspect as to accuracy. Yes, some kind of error has occurred; but, as David points out, the messages seem to have been incorrectly copied from Mac with no particular regard to relevance on the IIgs:

     For example, all the errors referring to "Can't load a package" make no sense - the IIgs doesn't have any such thing as a package (but early Macintosh system software does). Here is another big clue: error $30 is allegedly "Please insert disk (File Manager alert)".  There is no such thing as the "File Manager" on the IIgs, but there is on the Mac."-- David Empson

Basically, it appears that the faulty messages function as defaults (place holders) when more accurate third-party messages are not supplied. The suspect messages may appear; so, they remain in this listing; but, now they are marked.

Error messages marked ** indicate a System Failure message considered to be suspect.

Note 2: Error messages marked ****  indicate that a more detailed discussion is available in Question 004.

Error Codes List

0000 No error
0001 GS/OS: bad system call
0001 Tool Locator: dispatcher does not find toolset
0001 P16: System Failure- unclaimed interrupt
0001 P8: Invalid MLI function number
0002 Tool Locator: routine not found
0004 GS/OS: bad parameter count
0004 System Failure- division by zero **
0006 SmartPort: bus error in IWM chip
0007 GS/OS is busy
000A P16: System Failure- unusable Volume Control Block
000B P16: System Failure- unusable File Control Block
000C P16: System Failure- Block Zero allocated illegally
000D P16: System Failure- interrupt occurred while I/O shadowing off
0010 GS/OS: device not found
0010 Tool Locator: specified Version not found
0011 GS/OS: bad device number
0011 P16: System Failure- wrong OS version
0015 System Failure- Segment Loader error **
0017-0024 System Failure- Can't load a package **
0020 GS/OS: invalid driver request
0021 GS/OS: invalid driver control or status code
0022 GS/OS: bad call parameter
0023 GS/OS: character device not open
0024 GS/OS: character device already open
0025 GS/OS: interrupt table full
0025 System Failure- Out of Memory **
0026 GS/OS: resources not available
0026 System Failure- Segment Loader error **
0027 GS/OS: I/O error   ****
0027 System Failure- File map destroyed **
0028 GS/OS: no device connected
0028 System Failure- Stack overflow **
0029 GS/OS: driver is busy
002B GS/OS: disk write protected
002C GS/OS: invalid byte count
002D GS/OS: invalid block address
002E GS/OS: disk/volume switched
002F GS/OS: device offline or no disk in drive
0030 System Failure Alert- Please Insert Disk **
0040 GS/OS: bad pathname syntax
0042 GS/OS: max number of files already open
0042 P8: too many files open (can lead to NO BUFFERS AVAILABLE)
0043 GS/OS: bad file reference number
0044 GS/OS: directory not found
0045 GS/OS: volume not found
0046 GS/OS: file not found
0047 GS/OS: duplicate filename/pathname   ****
0048 GS/OS: disk/volume full   ****
0049 GS/OS: volume directory full   ****
004A GS/OS: incompatible file format
004A P8: incompatible ProDOS version
004B GS/OS: unsupported (or incorrect) storage type
004C GS/OS: End Of File encountered
004D GS/OS: position out of range
004D P8: position past End Of File
004E GS/OS: access not allowed
004F GS/OS: buffer too small
0050 GS/OS: file is already open
0051 GS/OS: directory damaged   ****
0051 P8: file count is bad
0052 GS/OS: unknown volume type
0053 GS/OS: parameter out of range
0054 GS/OS: out of memory
0055 P8: Volume Control Block table full
0056 P8: bad buffer address (can lead to NO BUFFERS AVAILABLE) ****
0057 GS/OS: duplicate volume name
0058 GS/OS: not a block device
0058 P8: bad volume bit map
0059 GS/OS: file level out of range
005A GS/OS: bad bitmap address (block# too large/ damaged disk) ****
005B GS/OS: invalid pathnames for ChangePath
005C GS/OS: not an executable file
005D GS/OS: Operating system/file system not available
005F GS/OS: too many applications on stack/ stack overflow
0060 GS/OS: data unavailable
0061 GS/OS: end of directory
0062 GS/OS: invalid FST call class
0063 GS/OS: file doesn't have a resource fork
0064 GS/OS: invalid FST ID
0065 GS/OS: invalid FST operation
0066 GS/OS: FST Caution- weird result
0067 GS/OS: device Name error/ internal error
0068 GS/OS: device List full
0069 GS/OS: supervisor List full
006A GS/OS: FST Error (generic)
0070 GS/OS: resource exists, cannot expand file
0071 GS/OS: cannot Add resource to this type file
0088 network error   ****
0100 System Failure- can not mount sys startup volume **

0103 [01] TOOL LOCATOR: invalid StartStop record
0104 tool cannot load
0110 specified minimum Version not found
0111 specified message not found
0112 no message numbers available
0113 message name too long
0120 request not accepted
0121 duplicate name
0122 invalid send request

0201 [02] MEMORY MANAGER: could not allocate memory  ****
0202 emptyErr
0203 notEmptyErr
0204 lockErr
0205 purgeErr
0206 handleErr
0207 idErr
0208 attrErr

0301 [03] MISCELLANEOUS TOOL SET: bad input parameter
0302 noDevParamErr
0303 taskInstlErr
0304 noSigTaskErr
0305 queueDmgdErr
0306 taskNtFdErr
0307 firmTaskErr
0308 hbQueueBadErr
0309 unCnctdDevErr
030B idTagNtAvlErr
034F mtBuffTooSmall
0381 invalidTag
0382 alreadyInQueue
0390 badTimeVerb
0391 badTimeData

0401 [04] QUICKDRAW II: QD II already initialized
0402 cannotReset
0403 notInitialized
0410 screenReserved
0411 badRect
0420 notEqualChunkiness
0430 rgnAlreadyOpen
0431 rgnNotOpen
0432 rgnScanOverflow
0433 rgnFull
0440 polyAlreadyOpen
0441 polyNotOpen
0442 polyTooBig
0450 badTableNum
0451 badColorNum
0452 badScanLine

0510 [05] DESK MANAGER: Desk Acessory not available
0511 notSysWindow
0512 badNdaTitleString  ****
0520 deskBadSelector

0601 [06] EVENT MANAGER: EM startup already called
0602 emResetErr
0603 emNotActErr
0604 emBadEvtCodeErr
0605 emBadBttnNoErr
0606 emQSiz2LrgErr
0607 emNoMemQueueErr
0681 emBadEvtQErr
0682 emBadQHndlErr  ****

0810 [08] SOUND: no DOC or RAM found
0811 docAddrRngErr
0812 noSAppInitErr
0813 invalGenNumErr
0814 synthModeErr
0815 genBusyErr
0817 mstrIRQNotAssgnErr
0818 sndAlreadyStrtErr
08FF unclaimedSntIntErr- "UNCLAIMED SOUND INTERRUPT" ****

0910 [09] APPLE DESKTOP BUS: command not completed
0911 cantSync- "FATAL SYSTEM ERROR 0911"  ****
0982 adbBusy
0983 devNotAtAddr
0984 srqListFull

0B01 [11] INTEGER MATH: bad input parameter
0B02 imIllegalChar
0B03 imOverflow
0B04 imStrOverflow

0C01 [12] TEXT TOOL SET: illegal device type
0C02 badDevNum
0C03 badMode
0C04 unDefHW
0C05 lostDev
0C06 lostFile
0C07 badTitle
0C08 noRoom
0C09 noDevice
0C0B dupFile
0C0C notClosed
0C0D notOpen
0C0E badFormat
0C0F ringBuffOFlo
0C10 writeProtected
0C40 devErr

0E01 [14] WINDOW MANAGER: parm list first word is wrong size
0E02 allocateErr
0E03 taskMaskErr

0F01 [15] MENU MANAGER: menu started
0F02 menuItemNotFound
0F03 menuNoStruct
0F04 dupMenuID

1001 [16] CONTROL MANAGER: Window Manager not initialized
1002 cmNotInitialized
1003 noCtlInList
1004 noCtlError
1005 notExtendedCtlError
1006 noCtlTargetError
1007 notExtendedCtlError
1008 canNotBeTargetError
1009 noSuchIDError
100A tooFewParmsError
100B noCtlToBeTargetError
100C noFrontWindowError

1101 [17] LOADER: id not found / segment not found
1102 OMF version error   ****
1103 idPathnameErr
1104 idNotLoadFile (often: file incompatible with system) ****
1105 idBusyErr
1107 idFilVersErr
1108 idUserIDErr
1109 idSequenceErr
110A idBadRecordErr
110B idForeignSegErr

1210 [18] QUICKDRAW AUX: pic empty
1211 badRectSize
1212 destModeError
121F bad picture opcode
1221 badRect
1222 badMode
1230 badGetSysIconInput

1301 [19] PRINT MANAGER: driver not in DRIVERS folder  ****
1302 portNotOn
1303 noPrintRecord
1304 badLaserPrep
1305 badLPFile
1306 papConnNotOpen
1307 papReadWriteErr
1308 ptrConnFailed
1309 badLoadParam
130A callNotSupported
1321 startUpAlreadyMade

1401 [20] LINE EDIT: LE startup already called
1402 leResetErr
1403 leNotActiveErr
1404 leScrapErr

150A [21] DIALOG MANAGER: bad item type
150B newItemFailed
150C itemNotFound
150D notModalDialog

1610 [22] SCRAP MANAGER: scrap type does not exist

1701 [23] STANDARD FILE OPERATIONS: bad prompt description
1702 ...

read more »


Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:55:58

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part6
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2DOSMM.txt  rev064 July 2003


 001- What is a "DOS"?
 002- What DOS's are available on Apple II computers?
 003- Are there any faster better versions of DOS 3.3?
 004- What commands are available in DOS 3.3?
 005- How do I use DOS commands from the keyboard?  a program?
 006- How do I use variables in a DOS command?
 007- How do I create new DOS 3.3 diskettes?
 008- How much storage space is on a 5.25" diskette?
 009- Can I format a DOS 3.3 diskette for just data storage?
 010- What is the "Volume Table of Contents" or "VTOC"?
 011- Can I assign names to my DOS 3.3 diskettes?
 012- What does it mean to "Boot" a disk?
 013- What file types does DOS 3.3 have
 014- What do the entries in a DOS 3.3 Catalog display mean?
 015- Re. DOS 3.3 file names: How long? What characters are legal?
 016- How can I use DOS 3.3 to read/write sectors from machine code?
 017- How many 'official' versions of DOS 3.3 are there?
 018- How can I find out the address and size of a BLOADed file?
 019- What information is included in the VTOC and Catalog sectors?
 020- How does DOS 3.3 remember which sectors are used?
 021- What are the formats of DOS 3.3's main file types?
 022- How can I run DOS 3.3 programs from 3.5" disks and hard disk?
 023- How can I get DOS 3.3 from the net without an A2 tcom utility?
 024- What is ProDOS?
 025- What are ProDOS's major features?
 026- Which Apple II's can run which versions of ProDOS?
 027- How can I create bootable ProDOS diskettes?
 028- How do I make a ProDOS disk that will boot and start a BASIC program?
 029- What is the maximum size of a ProDOS volume?
 030- How do I LOAD, SAVE, etc. files under ProDOS?
 031- What is a "pathname"?
 032- What is the default volume and folder when ProDOS boots?
 033- How can I set default volume and folder under ProDOS?
 034- How can I discover the volume name of a just booted disk?
 035- How do I create a folder?
 036- How can I access ProDOS routines from machine language?
 037- How can I convert DOS 3.3 wares to run under ProDOS?
 038- How can I modify ProDOS to do BLOADs to Text Page 1?
 039- How can I boot ProDOS on my Franklin computer?
 040- What are some good DOS 3.3 and ProDOS references?
 041- How can a BASIC program tell which DOS it's running under?

From: Rubywand

001- What is a "DOS"?

    "DOS" means "Disk Operating System". A DOS is a collection of machine language routines and data which lets a computer Read and Write information to/from disk. A DOS also includes commands, such as SAVE and LOAD, which you can use to create and access files on disk.

     Apple II DOS, Commodore 64 DOS, and the DOS used on PC's are all called "DOS"; but, they are different systems. Their commands are similar, sometimes identical, because what users want to do with disks is about the same whatever the computer. However, the way each DOS arranges and keeps track of data on disk is very different. You will not, for example, be able to read files from a C-64 diskette on your Apple II running under DOS 3.3.


002- What DOS's are available on Apple II computers?

     DOS 3.3 is the first DOS to be widely used on Apple II computers. Many programs were written to use DOS 3.3 commands and saved on DOS 3.3 diskettes. Apple 'officially' replaced DOS 3.3 with ProDOS back in the early '80's. However, DOS 3.3 continues to be popular with II users. To get DOS 3.3 from the net, see Csa21MAIN4: Get It- Links to popular software packages.

     Another Apple II DOS is the one introduced with Apple Pascal. Compared to DOS 3.3 or ProDOS, the Apple Pascal DOS is a very limited, cumbersome operating system.


003- DOS 3.3 seems kind of slow. Are there any faster
     better versions of DOS 3.3?

     Yes. Today, most "DOS 3.3 users" do not actually use DOS 3.3. Long ago, Beagle Bros introduced patches which resulted in much better speed, freed-up extra disk space, and added a CATALOG command which shows number of Free Sectors. Their Prontodos or some modification of it is, for practical purposes, the "current version" of DOS 3.3.

     ES DOS ][ adds a few mods to Prontodos. CATALOG shows Free Sectors and Number of Tracks and it scrolls the entire Catalog (scrolling stopped by pressing any key) instead of stopping when the screen is full. ES DOS ][ also lets you use the semi-colon as a terminating 'wildcard' character. This DOS includes a CATALOG fix to show correct size of files bigger than 255 sectors.

     Other popular, higher speed versions of DOS 3.3 include David DOS and Diversi-DOS; and, there are several small, special-purpose versions of DOS 3.3. (For example, one game maker used RDOS to save space and to make its diskettes harder to copy.)  Below is a chart which compares speed and features for standard and speeded versions of DOS 3.3.

              BLOAD Time   Does    Large Files   Frees 15  Disp Free  Error
               Test***     INIT    CATALOG fix   Sectors    Sectors    Msg

 Std DOS 3.3**- 8.9 sec     Yes         No          No         No      Yes
 DavidDOS-      2.8 sec      No        Yes          No        Yes      Yes
 DiversiDOS-    2.9 sec     Yes        Yes          No        Yes      err#
 EsDOS-         2.3 sec     Yes        Yes         Yes        Yes      abbr*
 ProntoDOS v1-  3.0 sec     Yes         No         Yes         No      Yes
 ProntoDOS v2-  3.0 sec     Yes         No         Yes        Yes      Yes

  * abbr: shows abbreviated error messages
 ** 1980-1983 versions
*** time to BLOAD MUFFIN from the 1983 DOS 3.3 System Master disk

     You can get standard and high-speed DOS 3.3's from a number of places on the net. See Csa21MAIN4: Get It- Links to popular software packages.


004- What commands are available in DOS 3.3?

     To get very far with "DOS 3.3" you will need the DOS Manual. This is especially true when it comes to using TEXT files. Other good sources of DOS 3.3 info include _Beneath Apple DOS_ and _Apple II User's Guide_. For now, the following is a quickie guide to most Apple II DOS 3.3 commands:

LOAD NARF- loads a BASIC file named NARF.

SAVE NARF- saves current BASIC program in memory as file named NARF.

DELETE NARF - deletes file named NARF

CATALOG - lists contents of diskette to screen


RUN NARF- loads and starts a BASIC file named NARF.

BLOAD NARF.PICTURE, A$2000 - loads in a binary file named NARF.PICTURE starting at address $2000.

note: $2000 is a hexadecimal number ($2000 = 8192 in decimal). DOS commands can use hex or decimal numbers.

BSAVE NARF, A$300, L$7F - saves $7F bytes of memory starting at address $300 as a binary file named NARF. (BSAVE NARF, A768, L127 uses decimal numbers to do the same thing.)

note: The above command statement illustrates typical DOS syntax ...

 BSAVE--  the DOS command

 NARF-- the file name (the space between the command and file name
 is not a requirement; BSAVENARF is okay)

 ,-- a comma to separate file name from parms which follow

 A-- means an Address follows

 $300-- the address from which you want to start saving bytes (the $
 indicates a hex value; $300= 768). Again, spaces do not matter;
 A768, A 768, A $ 300 are all okay

 ,-- a comma to separate one parm from another

 L-- means a Length follows

 $7F-- the length in hex (= 127); this is the number of bytes to be saved

 The command statement says Save $7F bytes, starting at address $300, to a file named "NARF". NARF will have the bytes found at addresses $300 through $37E.

note: The order of parms following a file name does not matter.

BRUN NARF.DISP, A$1000 - loads in a binary file named NARF.DISP starting at address $1000 and starts executing machine instructions at address $1000

LOCK NARF- locks file NARF (indicated by * in a CATALOG). LOCKed files cannot be deleted, over-written, etc.

UNLOCK NARF - cancels LOCKed status of NARF.

VERIFY NARF - uses checksums to verify that NARF is not a damaged file

MON C, I, O - tells DOS to display Commands, Inputs from disk, Outputs to disk. You can specify one, two, or all three (e.g. MON C, O  etc.).

NOMON C, I, O - cancels all MON requests. NOMON I cancels just the "I" request.

MAXFILES 7 - sets the number of file buffers to 7. (Upon booting DOS, the default for the MAXFILES value is 3.)

PR#1 - sets the destination for Apple outputs to the device in Slot 1 (usually a printer).  PR# 3 sets it to Slot 3, etc..  PR# 0 sets the destination back to the display screen.

PR#6 - normally, boots the diskette in Drive 1, Slot 6.

IN# 6 - sets the source for Apple inputs to the device in Slot 6.

IN# 0 - sets the source for Apple inputs to the keyboard (default).

INT - (integer) puts system into Integer BASIC if it is present.

FP - (floating point) puts system into standard Applesoft BASIC.

OPEN NARFOO - prepares to read or write a TEXT file named NARFOO.

READ NARFOO - tells DOS that INPUT and GET statements will obtain characters from a TEXT file named NARFOO.

WRITE NARFOO - tells DOS that PRINTed characters will go to a TEXT file named NARFOO.

CLOSE NARFOO - used to terminate access to a TEXT file named NARFOO. Just CLOSE terminates access to all OPENed TEXT files.

EXEC NARFGO - tells DOS to execute the BASIC and DOS commands found in a TEXT file named NARFGO

The above TEXT file commands handle 'normal' sequential TEXT files. DOS can also OPEN, READ, WRITE, ... random access TEXT files. (See DOS manual.)

Most DOS commands also let you specify Drive and/or Slot. For example CATALOG, D2  lists the contents of the diskette in Drive 2 to screen. SAVE NARF,S5,D2 saves NARF to Drive 2 in Slot 5.

NOTE --> Using Drive or ...

read more »


Apple II Csa2 FAQs: 1Main-Start, Part 1/25

Post by rubyw.. » Fri, 11 Jul 2003 18:56:00

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part10
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2003/7/1

The comp.sys.apple2 Usenet newsgroup Apple II FAQs originate from
the Ground Apple II archive, 1997-2003. Administrator: Steve Nelson

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground ref: Csa2FLUTILS.txt  rev064 July 2003

File Utilities

 001- What are "binscii" files and how are they used?
 002- What are .SHK files and how do I use them?
 003- How do I get ShrinkIt or GS-ShrinkIt going on my Apple II?
 004- How do I deal with the $00 type Apple II files I get on my Mac?
 005- Can I work with .zip files on my Apple II?
 006- What are DSK, NIB, 2MG, HDV,... disk image files & how do I use them?
 007- Where can I get ShrinkIt, binscii, DSK2FILE, ASIMOV, etc.?
 008- I have downloaded  files in "gz" format? How do I use them?
 009- Which programs can change ProDOS filetype?
 010- What is Copy II Plus and where can I get it?
 011- How do I use Copy II Plus to create and convert IMG files?
 012- How do I set write protection for an emulator disk image?
 013- How can I create a disk image from a ShrinkIt .sdk file?
 014- How can I convert a .po image to/from a .dsk or .do image?
 015- What do file name extensions mean and how do I access the files?
 016- How do I tell what kind of file this is?
 017- How can I create new .dsk, .nib, etc. disk images?
 018- How can I convert .dsk image <--> .nib image?
 019- How can I convert Diskcopy images to diskette or to other formats?
 020- How can I move files to/from .dsk and .2MG disk images?
 021- How can I unfork forked files on my Apple II?

From: Rubywand

001- What are "binscii" files and how are they used?

     The term "binscii" comes from combining "binary" with "ASCII".  A file in binscii form has been changed so that it can be transmitted as text to/from net servers and services which do not handle pure binary transfers.

     Today, practically all servers can handle pure binary transfers; so, binscii is no longer in popular use. However, quite a few old A2 files are still in binscii form and binscii is used for files uploaded to comp.binaries.apple2.

     To convert binscii'd files to their un-biniscii'd form, you can use a program named "BINSCII" or, on a GS, the New Desk Accessory named "GScii". These programs can, also, create binscii files.

Note: Binscii is in no way related to Binary II. Binscii changes the entire file into Text. Binary II is just a small block of bytes tacked onto the front of a file, mainly to identify the file's filetype.


002- What are ShrinkIt (.SHK) files and how do I use them?

    ShrinkIt files are the Apple II world's answer to .ZIP files in PC-ville. An .SHK file is a file which contains one or more files which are almost always in compressed form. Usually, they are produced by GS-ShrinkIt (also called "GSHK" or "ShrinkIt-GS") or the Balloon NDA, or by 8-bit ShrinkIt. Some .SHK files are produced by Macs; these may not always be compatible with A2 ShrinkIt programs.

     An .SHK file can be unshrinked by ShrinkIt even if it shows up on the Apple II with a TXT or BIN filetype and even if the name does not end with ".SHK" or ".shk". If a ShrinkIt file does not show up as available for unshrinking, you can toggle an "All files" option to see the file and then select it. If an .SHK file has a Binary II header, ShrinkIt will automatically remove it and assign the correct filetype. (Of course, this will usually be SHK.)

     Other kinds of ShrinkIt files include .SEA and .SDK.  An Apple II .SEA file is a IIgs executable self-extracting archive-- i.e. you can click it on the GS Finder and it will unShrink. There are also Mac .SEA files and these are not GS-compatible.

     A ShrinkIt whole-disk archive is an .SHK file which is usually labeled ".SDK" to show that it is a Shrinked diskette. An .SDK file can archive a 3.5" diskette (both sides) or 5.25" diskette (one side). Most are archives of 5.25" DOS 3.3 diskettes produced by 8-bit ShrinkIt.

     A whole-disk ShrinkIt archive retains all data bytes on a diskette, including files, Catalog/Directory sectors, empty tracks, and DOS if present. An .sdk file of a DOS 3.3 5.25" disk created by 8-bit ShrinkIt also preserves volume number-- important for some games and utilities which depend upon volume numbers to identify disks. (5.25" whole-disk archives created by GS-ShrinkIt do not preseve volume number.)

     8-bit/IIe ShrinkIt can be used to fully unshrink any Apple II .SHK file _except_ .SHK files which contain files with GS/OS resource forks and .SEA files. For this reason, 8-bit ShrinkIt should not be used to unshrink .SHK file archives containing GS programs unless you know that none of the contained files has a resource fork.

     GS-ShrinkIt can handle nearly all kinds of Apple II .SHK and .SDK files. It will not handle shrinked 5.25" DOS 3.3 .SDK files created by 8-bit ShrinkIt. In fact, most users automatically use 8-bit ShrinkIt to create and unshrink .SDK files of old 5.25" wares. (Balloon does not currently support whole-disk archives.)

     Naturally, things are somewhat more crowded on 64K Apple II's. On these machines, the functions are separated. SHRINK creates .SHK files and UNSHRINK unshrinks them.

     On a PC, the utility NuLib (v3.24) lets you view contents and unshrink most kinds of .SHK files. (There is a handy option to unshrink and convert Apple II text files to PC text format.) It will not unshrink IIgs files with resource forks.

     Here is a simple one-line batch (text) file program for easily viewing the contents of .shk files you download to a PC (just double-click on the file name):

c:\nulib\nulib v %1 |more

The above is for NuLib.exe located in folder c:\nulib . Save the text as nulibv.bat in c:\nulib and tell Windows to use c:\nulib\nulibv.bat as the 'application to perform action' for doing an Open. (You do this by selecting View--Options in the My Computer window and editing the file type info for .shk files.)

     NuLib can also convert 5.25" .SDK files into .PO (ProDOS order) disk images which can be used by Apple II emulators. This works for .SDK files produced by 8-bit ShrinkIt but not for those produced by GS-ShrinkIt.

     The unshrinking process is very speedy and the size of a compressed ShrinkIt file is, often, around half that of the original files it contains. This makes .SHK files very handy for archiving your software. And, since a ShrinkIt file also preserves filetype information of contained files, ShrinkIt has become the preferred format for uploading and storing Apple II files on the internet.


003- How do I get ShrinkIt or GS-ShrinkIt going on my Apple II?

Getting GS-ShrinkIt v1.1

     If you do not already have Balloon or an earlier version of GS-ShrinkIt, there are several ways to get GS-ShrinkIt going once a file is downloaded and transferred to your IIgs. Here are the two easiest ways:

A. The Self-Extracting (.sea) version

     A IIgs .sea file is a IIgs application which self-extracts the file contents when executed from the usual Finder desktop display. Since the file gshk.sea will, most likely, arrive as a Text type file, you will need to change the file's filetype to $B3 (S16) before it can be executed.

     Several utilities can change ProDOS filetype. If you do not have one, you can download tchange.bin and follow the directions* in tchange_info.txt  to get it going on your Apple II.

     You can find GS-ShrinkIt in an .SEA file (e.g. gshk.sea) and tchange.bin on several archive sites. (See Q&A 007 below.)

B. The Shrinked Disk (.sdk) version

     GSUTILS.sdk is a shrinked whole-disk file which can be unshrinked to 800k 3.5" diskette using 8-bit ShrinkIt (or GS-ShrinkIt).  If booted, this diskette starts a bare-bones System 6.0.1 and launches GS-ShrinkIt.

     Besides GS-ShrinkIt, also on the disk (in .SHK files) are the ZLINK shareware telecom utility and ASIMOV for converting .dsk files. Coolwriter (for reading Text) is on the disk as a non-shrinked file. All of these can be copied to hard disk or to other diskettes.

     GSUTILS.sdk is available on Ground in the useful.stuff/ folder mentioned above. The 8-bit ShrinkIt in a self-extracting version can be found in the same folder.

Getting SHRINK and UNSHRINK (for 64k Apples)

     SHRINK and UNSHRINK permit 64k Apple II users to work with .SHK files. These files are usually maintained in non-shrinked form. You can find them on several sites.  (See Q&A 007 below.)

     To get these utilities going on your Apple II, download SHRINK, UNSHRINK, and SHRINK2PLUS.TXT (e.g. as separeate files or on a .dsk disk image). Once the files are transferred to your Apple II, follow the directions* in SHRINK2PLUS.TXT.

*Note: If you download an Apple II file to a PC and transfer to a Mac and get filetype $00 ("Unknown"),  the process described in the directions will not work when the $00 file is moved to your Apple II. One solution is a Mac utility to set filetype to $04 (TXT). See ProTYPE info in the next Q&A below.


Getting 8-bit ShrinkIt

From: Beverly Cadieux

     The easiest way to get the current (3.4) version of 8-bit ShrinkIt going is via the self-extracting archive, SHRINK.EXE.

o- Download the file, (transfer to your Apple II if necessary,) and get into AppleSoft BASIC (run BASIC.SYSTEM and get to the AppleSoft "]" prompt).

o- Be sure to set the ProDOS PREFIX to the location of SHRINK.EXE on your Apple II. For example, if it is in the main directory of volume HD1, you would enter


o- Now, enter -SHRINK.EXE (that's a dash, then the file name):


     Shrinkit will self-extract, along with a documentation file. (ShrinkIt v3.4 consists of two files. One is a small start file which may be named "Shrinkit.System", "ShrinkitST.sys", or something similar. The other is the main program file which must be named

read more »