## Converting color values to color indices

### Converting color values to color indices

I'm using a Floyd-Steinburg dither to reduce the number of colors in
an image. To find the colors I need quickly, I'm using an inverse table-
a three-dimensional array indexed by color value yielding the color index
to put into the image.

Right now, I'm comparing each color position in the inverse table to
each color in the color lookup table to find the index I want. Since I'm
using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance, I'm executing thousands
of multiplications and it takes a long time (Macintosh Plus; 68000 at 8Mhz).

I must be missing something obvious, since I know that there are fast
implementations out there; such as in Apple's color QuickDraw software.

o Fast ways of stuffing inverse color tables.

o Better ways of converting colors to color indices.

Thanks.

--
Kevin A. Mitchell                (312) 266-4485

441 W. Huron                     UUCP: ..!uunet!dlogics!kam
Chicago, IL  60610               FAX: (312) 266-4473

### Converting color values to color indices

>I'm using a Floyd-Steinburg dither to reduce the number of colors in
>an image. To find the colors I need quickly, I'm using an inverse table-
>a three-dimensional array indexed by color value yielding the color index
>to put into the image.
>I must be missing something obvious, since I know that there are fast
>implementations out there; such as in Apple's color QuickDraw software.

I do this in the BarneyScan Mac color scanner driver. There is no need to
do multiplies to compute the pythagorean distance between the color you've
got and the closest color in the color table. Consider:
If you use a color cube that is a power of two on a side, and is uniformly
distributed in color space, you can just use the appropriate number of
high order bits of red, blue, and green to index directly to the closest
color. You can avoid round off by adding an appropriate offset to your
original color before you start. The Floyd-Steinberg dithering algorithm
will propogate the error between the color you want and the color you get,
so the next pixels will pick up the slack.

If your color aren't uniformly distributed, you can still use a uniform
color cube to get you to the head of a list of colors that are close to
the one you've got, then you can binary search the list to find the actual
one.  This is still alot better than binary searching the entire color
cube.

> The mac is a detour in the inevitable march of mediocre computers.

--- David Phillip Oster          -master of the ad hoc odd hack.

Uucp: {uwvax,decvax}!ucbvax!oster%dewey.soe.berkeley.edu

### Converting color values to color indices

> Right now, I'm comparing each color position in the inverse table to
> each color in the color lookup table to find the index I want. Since I'm
> using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance, I'm executing thousands
> of multiplications and it takes a long time (Macintosh Plus; 68000 at 8Mhz).

> I must be missing something obvious, since I know that there are fast
> implementations out there; such as in Apple's color QuickDraw software.

I am not very experienced in computer graphics, but your problem is
mentionned briefly in the latest issue of a German computer journal,
called "c't" (issue 12/89 pp. 166-178) and I hope I have understood that
article.
There the author describes the method you are using in detail and mentions
that it could be made more efficient by "pre-sorting the color lookup table
in sub-cubes of the RGB space and determining the nearest neighbours".
(Instead of comparing with _each_ entry of the color index table, he means
obviously).

As a reference, he gives "Heckbert, P.: Color Image Quantization for Frame
Buffer Display, SIGRAPH 1982 Proceedings, pp. 297-307"

Hi all, I am not familar with the graphic programming but I have to write a
program that some parts need to convert RGB color of a image file to HSI in
c Programming. Could anyone give me some information or resources or
algorithm to me? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks a lot.

Edmond Mui