Linux News HOWTO

Linux News HOWTO

Post by Vince Skah » Thu, 17 Mar 1994 14:27:44

Archive-name: linux/howto/news
Last-modified:  26 January 1994

The Linux News HOWTO
by Vince Skahan, <>
v1.6, Last Modified 26 January 1994

This document describes the setup and care+feeding of USENET News under

You need to read this if you plan to post or read USENET news either
locally on your site or between your site and other sites.

You probably do *not* need to read this document if don't plan to provide
USENET news as a feature of your system.

0.  Introduction

The intent of this document is to answer some of the questions and comments
that appear to meet the definition of 'frequently asked questions' about
USENET News software under Linux in general, and the version in the Linux
SLS distribution in particular.

This document and the corresponding Mail and UUCP 'HOWTO' documents
collectively supersede the UUCP-NEWS-MAIL-FAQ that has previously been
posted to comp.os.linux.announce.

0.1 New versions of this document

        New versions of this document will be periodically posted to
        comp.os.linux.announce, comp.answers, and news.answers.  They will
        also be added to the various anonymous ftp sites who archive such
        information including

0.2 Feedback

        I am interested in any feedback, positive or negative, regarding
        the content of this document via e-mail.  Definitely contact me if
        you find errors or obvious omissions.

        I read, but do not necessarily respond to, all e-mail I receive.
        Requests for enhancements will be considered and acted upon based on
        that day's combination of available time, merit of the request, and
        daily blood pressure :-)

        Flames will quietly go to /dev/null so don't bother.

        Feedback concerning the actual format of the document should go to
        the HOWTO coordinator - Matt Welsh (

0.3 Copyright Information

    The News-HOWTO is copyrighted (c)1994 Vince Skahan.

    A verbatim copy may be reproduced or distributed in any medium physical
    or electronic without permission of the author.  Translations are
    similarly permitted without express permission if it includes a notice
    on who translated it.

    Short quotes may be used without prior consent by the author.
    Derivative work and partial distributions of the News-HOWTO must be
    accompanied with either a verbatim copy of this file or a pointer to
    the verbatim copy.

    Commercial redistribution is allowed and encouraged; however, the
    author would like to be notified of any such distributions.

    In short, we wish to promote dissemination of this information through
    as many channels as possible. However, we do wish to retain copyright
    on the HOWTO documents, and would like to be notified of any plans to
    redistribute the HOWTOs.

    We further want that ALL information provided in the HOWTOS is
    disseminated. If you have questions, please contact Matt Welsh, the
    Linux HOWTO coordinator, at, or +1 607 256 7372.

0.4 Standard Disclaimer

        Of course, I disavow any potential liability for the contents of this
        document.  Use of the concepts, examples, and/or other content of this
        document is entirely at your own risk.

0.5 Other sources of information

        news.admin.misc         General topics of network news administration.
        news.admin.policy       Policy issues of USENET.
        news.admin.technical    Maintaining network news. (Moderated)         Discussion about B-news-compatible software.        Discussion about the "nn" news reader package.      The Network News Transfer Protocol.   Software used to read network news.
        news.sysadmin           Comments directed to system administrators.
        news.announce.newusers  Explanatory postings for new users. (Moderated)
        news.newusers.questions Q & A for users new to the Usenet.


        The following is a non-inclusive set of books that will help...

        'Managing UUCP and USENET' published by O'Reilly+Associates is in
        my opinion the best book out there for figuring out the programs
        and protocols involved in being a USENET site.

        'Unix Communications' published by The Waite Group contains a nice
        description of all the pieces (and more) and how they fit together.

        'Practical Unix Security' published by O'Reilly+Associates has a
        nice discussion of how to secure UUCP in general.

    'The Internet Complete Reference' from Osborne is a fine reference book
    that explains the various services available on Internet and is a great
    "one-stop-shopping" source for information on news, mail, and various
    other Internet resources.

0.6 Where *NOT* to look for help

        There is nothing 'special' about configuring and running USENET
        news under Linux (any more).  Accordingly, you almost certainly do
        *NOT* want to be posting generic news-related questions to the
        comp.os.linux.* newsgroups.

        Unless your posting is truly Linux-specific (ie, "please tell me
        what patches are needed to run INN with the bash1.12 in SLS v1.03)
        you should be asking your questions in the newsgroups mentioned above.

        Let me repeat that.

        There is virtually no reason to post anything news-related in the
        comp.os.linux hierarchy any more.  There are existing newsgroups in
        the news.* hierarchy to handle *ALL* your questions.

1.0 Hardware Requirements

        There are no specific hardware requirements for USENET News under
        Linux.  The only requirement of any type is sufficient disk space
        to hold the software itself, the threads database(s), and the
        amount of news you wish to keep on the system.  Figure on a minimum
        of 10 MB of disk space for starters.

2.0 Getting USENET News software

        All the software referenced in this 'HOWTO' is available on the usual
        Internet anonymous ftp sites.  

        Looking in /news on is usually a good way to start.

        The newspak-2.0.tar.z distribution contains config files and readme
        files related to building uucp, news, and mail software under Linux
        from the various freely-available sources.  It can usually be found
        on in the directory /pub/Linux/system/Mail.

3.0 News Transport Software

        There are two main sets of news 'transport' software for *nix these
        days, Cnews and INN.  The old 'Bnews' has been declared officially
        dead and unsupported by its authors.

        News 'transport' is defined here to be the software that works behind
        the scenes to post and propagate the news articles as well as making
        the articles available for the newsreaders to access.

        You can set your paths to anything you like, as long as UUCP has the
        absolute path to rnews in the Permissions file and as long as you
        have your newsreaders configured so that they can find 'inews' and

        Important - you're asking for trouble if you try to intermix Cnews
        and INN.  Pick one or the other.  It's ok to add the NNTP 'Reference
        Release' into Cnews since they're intended to play well together.

3.1 Cnews Performance Release

        The current de-facto standard news software is Cnews.  It has been
        around for a number of years, I first saw it sometime around 1988.

        Cnews's main benefit is its maturity.  It runs on about every *nix
        you can find and there are literally thousands of systems running
        it worldwide.

        Its main disadvantage is that it seems to have been intended for
        uucp-over-modem connections between sites and as such requires
        the addition of NNTP software to handle realtime Internet feeds
        and reading.  

        In addition, it requires external threading packages for the
        various newsreaders, although the NOV package can now be hooked in
        to help somewhat and it's rumored to have native NOV support in the
        upcoming 'cleanup' release.

        Regardless, the beginning USENET admin should probably run Cnews
        first since it's so stable, well documented, and has many thousands
        of experienced administrators who can answer questions.

        The newspak-2.0.tar.z distribution on sunsite contains working
        config files for Cnews under Linux as well as a couple line patch
        you'll need to make to 'doexplode' to get around some problems with
        bash1.12.  bash1.13 is now available on the various Linux archive
        sites that should help.

3.1.1 Installing Cnews

        Installing the Performance Release of Cnews is absolutely a 'rtfm'
        project.  Just grab the sources, extract them, and follow the

        The build.def in newspak was generated by running 'build' the
        first time and simply looking up the answers by checking out the
        /usr/include files to get the right answers.

        When you start the actual compilation, it'll blow up a couple of
        times.  In all cases, you'll need to simply comment out a couple of
        atoi() and atol() macros that gcc doesn't like when your doit.bin
        compilation blows up.  

        Also, you need the following tiny change to doexplode to get around
        some bash1.12 bugs or else you won't feed anything downstream...

        [...from Steve Robbins - ...]

        if [ ! -f $f ] ; then continue; fi              # add this line
        #       case "$f" in                            # comment me out
        #       "out.master/[0-9]*")  break ;;        # comment me out
        #       esac                                    # comment me out

        Henry Spencer of Cnews fame says that the code in doexplode that is
        currently causing problems with bash is on the list to be revised in
        a future release.

        It is uncertain at this time if the need for this patch goes away
        if you switch to the beta bash1.13 now available for Linux.

3.1.2 Configuring Cnews

        At the very least, you need to edit the following files that all
        should be in /usr/local/lib/news:

                active             - the active file
                batchparms         - batch parameters
                explist            - article expiration setup
                mailname           - name in headers for mailed replies
                mailpaths          - path to mail moderated postings to
                organization       - your 'org'
                sys                - control what you take and feed
                whoami             - your hostname for the Path: line

3.1.3 Maintaining a Cnews Site

        First, a significant rule of thumb is to not mess with files
        by hand that have utilities that configure them. In particular
        don't set up newsfeeds (run 'addfeed'instead) and don't mess with
        your active file (run 'addgroup').  When in doubt, read and re-read
        the docs in the source distribution.

        Everything else can be done via cron.  My crontab for 'news' looks
        like the following:

        # take the compressed batches that came in from other systems
        20 *       * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/input/newsrun  

        # batch 'em up to go out
        0 *        * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/batch/sendbatches myfeedsite

        # expire C-news
        59 0       * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/expire/doexpire

        # monitor stuff and report if needed
        10 5 * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/newsdaily
        00 5 * * * /usenet/sw/new/bin/newswatch

        # turn processing of incoming news batches off 6:30AM - 4:00 PM
        30 6       * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/input/newsrunning off
        00 16      * * * /usenet/sw/news/bin/input/newsrunning on

3.2 InterNetNews (INN)

        INN is the newcomer on the scene, but it's gaining popularity as
        it matures.  Its main benefit is speed and the fact that it contains
        an integrated nntp package.  Its main drawback is that it's new and
        that it doesn't necessarily install and run flawlessly on the many
        'standard *nixes' yet.  In addition, it operates by having a daemon
        (the innd) always running plus potentially a overchan daemon to do
        threading.  The tradeoff seems to be memory vs. speed.

        New USENET admins should probably not try INN until they have
        experience with either B-news or Cnews.  While it's fast and
        reliable under Linux, it's virtually undocumented for the
        beginning news administrator (though in practice it's rather
        simple to run once you figure it out).

        INN is very particular about its permissions.  Don't mess with them.

3.2.1 Installing INN

        [... from Arjan de Vet - ...]

        I've made a patch + config kit for INN 1.4 to get it to run on Linux.
        It can be found at:

        INN depends heavily on a good /bin/sh substitute. I use a beta
        version of bash 1.13 that is now available for Linux on the normal
        archive sites.  bash 1.12 gives some small problems with
        newgroups not being handled correctly (maybe some other problems
        too, I don't remember).

3.2.2 Configuring INN

        Basically follow Arjan's instructions and you'll be all set.
        Here's the summary of what to do:

        - In, make sure you have "HAVE_UNIX_DOMAIN     DONT"
        - Add the hostname of the system running innd to hosts.nntp
                (for a uucp-only site, that's your sitename...)
        - Make sure you do not have a line for nntp in /etc/inetd.conf
        - Make sure that you have innshellvars say "HAVE_UUSTAT DO"
                rather than the 'DONT' in his example if you
                have uustat from the Taylor UUCP package installed.  If you
                have this defined wrong, it'll result in no outgoing news
                getting batched.

        If you run INN, *definitely* define the recommended syslogd
        stuff because it is very, very helpful.

        There is a spectacular (!!!!) FAQ for INN that comes out monthly.
        Look on for it.  You'll be glad you did.

3.2.3 Maintaining a INN Site

        I've found that there's essentially zero care-and-feeding of
        a Linux INN site other than having a working 'cron'.  Basically
        you want a crontab that looks something like the following:

        # daily maint, also expire the .overview database and articles
        1 0 * * * /usenet/sw/inn/bin/news.daily expireover delayrm < /dev/null

        # send 'em out
        5 * * * * /usenet/sw/inn/lib/send-uucp

        [ if you switch to bash1.13, the '< /dev/null' above is not needed ]

3.3 Other News Transport Agents

        The following is a non-inclusive list of other news transport
        software known to work under Linux:

                 dynafeed, nntp1.5.11, slurp1.05

4.0 News Readers

        There is no 'one true newsreader'.  As a result, there are many
        well-known newsreaders that port easily to Linux in particular.  At
        this writing, 'tin', 'trn', and 'nn' are in the SLS distribution of

        When picking a newsreader, you basically want to find something
        that is easy to use, very configurable by the user, with threading
        and kill files (to select interesting articles or make the
        non-interesting ones not appear at all).

        You can set your paths to anything you like as long as all the
        newsreaders can find 'inews' from your Cnews or INN installation
        and a 'mail' program to send mail replies to posts.

        This section will talk briefly about several of the most popular
        ones.  Before you ask, I use 'nn' for lots of reasons :-)

4.1 Tin

        Tin is a threaded newsreader generally intended to be easy for new
        users.  It supports kill files and NOV threading.  If you're running
        INN, it will read NOV .overview files by default and not write index

        To compile Tin under linux, basically just edit the makefile to set
        the locations of the software (especially the location of inews)
        and type 'make linux'.  There are no patches required for tin under

        For threading, you can basically just say 'tin -u' to update the
        index files.

        To enable the ability to read via NNTP, compile with 'NNTP_ABLE'
        defined.  This will result in a file called 'tin' for local and one
        called 'rtin' for NNTP reading.  'tin -r' will also get the same
        behavior as 'rtin'.

        Iain Lea recommends the following crontab entry and says that you
        need to do a 'make daemon' to make tind.

        # thread the database
        35 * * * * /usenet/bin/tind -u

4.2 Trn/Mthreads

        trn is a threaded derivative of the 'rn' newsreader.  trn3.3 has
        the nice ability to select either the 'mthreads' (trn's threading
        package) or NOV (threader from INN) threading.

        To compile it, just run Configure and take the calculated defaults.
        You might need to have lib4.4.1 and bash-1.13 (there is a beta now
        available on the various Linux archive sites) to successfully run
        Configure.  You'll probably need both bash1.13 and libs4.4.1 to
        get the new Configure to run properly.

        The newspak-2.0.tar.z distribution on sunsite contains working
        config files for trn under Linux.

        It's probably unwise to try to edit a trn by hand unless
        you're doing something *VERY* simple like changing the paths to
        fit your tastes.  If you do so, you'll need to run 'Configure -S'
        before you 'make depend', 'make', and 'make install'.

        Although 'Configure' fails generally under Linux with bash1.12,
        'Configure -S' work fine so if you take the newspak as a
        starting point, you'll be very close.

        Compiling for NNTP reading is as simple as answering 'yes' when
        Configure asks you if you want to do so (assuming Configure runs
        ok on your system).  A future release of newspak will include a for NNTP reading as well as the existing one for local
        reading for those of us who are still 'bash-impaired' :-)

        There are dozens of command line switches for trn to get all kinds
        of behavior.  Read the 'trn' man page for details.  I use a nice
        feature to set all the switches easily:
                - add all the settings in a file called ~/.trnrc
                - export TRNINIT="~/.trnrc"

        A future newspak will have my .trnrc file as an example.

        trn3.2 and above has support for NOV or mthreads threading
        that's user-selectable.  Accordingly, I recommend building the
        software to allow both threading mechanisms (it's a question in
        Configure).  To pick one at runtime, try 'trn -Zo' for NOV and 'trn
        -Zt' for mthreads.

        To build the mthreads database, do something like the following
        in the 'news' crontab:

        # thread the trn database
        35 * * * * /usenet/bin/mthreads all

4.3 NN

        The newspak-2.0.tar.z distribution on sunsite contains working
        config files for nn6.4.18 that you can drop into place and type
        'make' under Linux.  

        When you're done compiling, you need to do the following:
                - run the 'inst' program to install things.  
                        (install everything)
                - initialize the database
                - fire up nnmaster

        See the nn docs for details.  Compiling, configuring, and running
        nn under Linux is no different than running nn on any other *nix
        with the exception that you probably want to run nnmaster as a cron
        entry rather than as a daemon.  If you run it as a daemon under
        linux, it doesn't tend to wake up properly (the net effect of
        running it from cron is the same anyway).

        Support of 'nn' is as simple as the following crontab entries:

        # run nnmaster to collect 'nn' stuff
        25 * * * * /usenet/sw/nn/lib/nnmaster

        # expire the nn database
        0  4       * * * /usenet/sw/nn/bin/nnadmin =EYW

        # stash a copy of the active file for 'nngoback' and keep last 7
        0 3 * * * /usenet/sw/nn/lib/back_act 7

4.4 Other newsreaders

        The following is a non-inclusive list of newsreaders said to
        install and run under Linux:

                tass, xrn, gnus

5.0 Acknowledgements

        The following people have helped in the assembly of the information
        (and experience) that helped make this document possible:

                Ed Carp, Steve Robbins, Ian Taylor, Greg Naber, Matt Welsh,
                Iain Lea, Arjan de Vet

        If I forgot anybody, my apologies...


6.0 Frequently Asked Questions about USENET (in c.o.l.* anyway...)

6.1 Why can't I post to moderated groups ?

        Probably because the newsreader is trying to call /bin/mail to send
        the mail and it doesn't like it.  Replace the /bin/mail in SLS with
        the port of mailx-5.3b.tar.z from the pub/Linux/system/Mail dir on and make it mode 2755 and group mail (like 'elm')
        and you'll be all set.

        Another possibility is that you have a moderated newsgroup set up
        on your local system as not-moderated and somebody upstream is
        quietly deleting the article (some system's software, not a
        person).  Make sure you run a 'checkgroups' every now and then when
        the checkgroups article rolls by in news.admin every few weeks.

6.2 Why do I have problems that appear to be permission-related ?

        Because until very recently, SLS didn't have a 'news' username or
        group in the default passwd/group files.

        All the stuff in /usr/local/lib/news should be except
        /usr/local/lib/news/setnewsids which should be setuid root.

        You can use whatever UID and GID you want for 'news'.

6.3 Why can I post articles locally, but they don't get fed downstream ?

        Probably because you didn't call newsrun from cron.  Maybe because
        you edited your sys file and messed it up.  There are examples of
        each in the SLS /usr/local/lib/news directory.  Maybe because you
        don't have a /usr/spool/news/out.going tree or something.

        Do not create newsgroups or feeds by editing the active or sys
        files.  Use the utilities in /usr/local/lib/news/bin/maint to do

6.4 Why doesn't SLS have the 'Performance Release' of C-news?

        Because it's optional.  Because it has problems under Linux in some
        places.  Because the one in SLS is more stable and plenty fast
        enough on any type of reasonable system (IMHO). If you need any
        more convincing, here's a few excerpts from the C-news

                "This is the 20 Feb 1993 Performance Release of C News, a
                minor update to the 2 May 1992 P.R. that just fixes some
                installation problems and a couple of annoying bugs"...

                "This release is more or less a halfway step to what we've
                been calling the "cleanup release"...

                "People who are happy with the older C News might want to
                wait for the cleanup release, which is still coming
                although behind schedule"...

        Mainly because at the time SLS1.01 came out, the compilers and libs
        didn't like the Performance Release too much.

6.5 Why doesn't SLS have nntp ?

        Because it's supposed to be plug-n-play under Linux and because I
        didn't want to make SLS's news stuff doubly big by having to
        maintain both nntp and non-nntp versions of the newsreaders and
        news transport programs.  Also because it compiles in localized
        information that is not overridable at runtime via a config file.

6.6 Why does doexpire (or relaynews or...) say "severe space shortage" when
        there's lots of room ?

        Because it can't read /etc/mtab.  Make it mode 644.  This happens
        when you unmount a mounted filesystem by root with a umask that
        doesn't permit world-read of files owned by root.

6.7 Why does everything look normal, but posting doesn't happen ?

        Older versions of Linux had a 'broken' sed that C-news was prone
        to blow up.  In particular, if you've installed over an old SLS,
        be sure to check /bin and /usr/bin to be certain you have only
        one copy of sed and that it's a modern one.

6.8  Can I hook the new news overview (NOV) stuff into trn/tin/nn to replace
        the various independent thread databases ?

        Yes.  trn3.3 supports it now.  The next version of tin will.

        You can hook it into the Performance Release of Cnews and various
        other readers as well...

    The beta copy of nn6.5 I have here has NOV support and it works just
    dandy under Linux.  I run it here and have nn running without having to
        run nnmaster (!).  Look on for a copy of it.

6.9  Why can't we have a binary distribution of NNTP ?

        Because significant local-only information is compiled-in and
        cannot be determined auto-magically at runtime.

6.10  How do I set up NNTP to allow read/post across the network while *not*
        storing any news articles or databases locally.

        [... (Matt Welsh) ...]

        1) Grab the 'reference implementation' of nntp and a copy or rn
                from your local archive site.  If you connect to
                you'd grab:

                nntp.1.5.11.tar.Z from
                rn-4.4.pl3.tar.Z from

        2) compile nntp as follows:

                copy common/conf.h.dist to common/conf.h.
                Edit common/conf.h to set certain options:
                The only ones I set were:

                DOMAIN: undefine it (i.e. change the line to #undef DOMAIN).
                REALDOMAIN: Define this. It looks up the domain using
                                the libraries.

                SERVER_FILE: Set this to the name of the file which will
                        contain the hostname of the news server (i.e. the
                        machine you'll read and post news through). I use

                PASSFILE: If your news server requires authorization (i.e.
                        some kind of username/password) to post, set this to
                        the name of the file which contains the username and
                        password (described below).  I use

        I decided to keep all of the other news stuff in /usr/local/lib/news.
        So I set all of the rest of the pathnames in the file (i.e.
        ACTIVE_FILE, NEWSGROUPS_FILE, etc.) to use /usr/local/lib/news.  Many
        of these files are only used by the NNTP server, not the client, but
        to be safe I changed them all to point to the right directory. You can
        of course use the default pathnames; just make sure you create the
        directory accordingly.

        3) Create the user "usenet" if you haven't already. The inews program
        runs as this user. All you need is a userid; you don't need a home
        directory or shell or anything for the user. Just plop the following
        line into your /etc/passwd:


        Make sure you set the userid ("13", above) to something unique. The
        group can be anything; I use "daemon" (gid 1).

        4) Create the SERVER_FILE, above. For example, my news server is
        "", so I created the file
        /usr/local/lib/news/server which contained one line:

        5) Create the PASSFILE. This file contains lines of the form
                <server name> <username> <password>

        Let's say that your news server (the one in SERVER_FILE, above) is
        "", and to post on that machine you need to be
        authorized as the user "news" with a password of "floof". Thus, in the
        PASSFILE (I use /usr/local/lib/news/nntppass), you need the line
       news floof

        6) Make this file secure! The inews program runs as the user "usenet",
        so make this news directory owned by that user and the nntppass file
        as well.

        chown usenet /usr/local/lib/news
        chmod 755 /usr/local/lib/news
        chown usenet /usr/local/lib/news/nntppass
        chmod 600 /usr/local/lib/news/nntppass

        So nobody else can read this file. No, the passwords in it are not

        7) Go back to the nntp.1.5.11 source directory; issue "make client".
        At this point you'll build the NNTP version of inews, which is the
        only software used by the NNTP client.

        When I built inews, there was a bug in the library which caused the
        function uname() in uname.c to call itself eternally. This should be
        gone now; however, if inews seems to hang and your system starts
        slowing down *a lot* you should rename the function "uname()" in
        uname.c to something like "my_uname()", and change the calls to it (in
        inews.c) to call my_uname() instead. Mail me if you run into this
                [...VDS note - this means mail to Matt...not me :-) ...]

        8) Issue "make install_client". This will install the inews stuff.
        Also make the link /usr/local/lib/news/inews -> /usr/local/bin/inews

        Now you should be able to happily post (by hand). Try something like
        the following:

                $ inews -h << EOF
                Newsgroups: misc.test
                Subject: Testing

                This is a test.

        If this works, inews should post the article. You'll know because
        test-responders on misc.test will reply to the address on the Reply-To
        line, above. Please don't do test postings on real groups, like c.o.l.

6.11 How do I build 'rrn' as a nntp-based newsreader/poster ?

        [... (Matt Welsh) ...]

        1. cd to the rn source directory and do "./Configure". For almost all
        the questions, take the defaults (it's very smart).  Make sure you
        have a link to "cpp" (usually in /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-linux/2.3.3) in
        /lib, so rn can find it.

        - Don't panic if it says you're on a NeXT or a USG system. Just go
        with the flow...

        - Answer "y" to "Do you expect to run these scripts and binaries on
        multiple machines?"

        - For your domain name: if your system is, say, "", answer
        with just "" (the domain, not the entire hostname).

        - Answer "usenet" for the name of the user which is the news admin.

        - For "Where is your news library?" use the directory where the above
        NNTP files are kept: I use /usr/local/lib/news.

        - Man page source is in /usr/man/man1.

        - Answer "y" to "Does your /etc/passwd file keep full names in
        Berkeley/V7 format?"

        - Answer "gcc" to the name of the compiler which forces resolution.

        - Answer "y" to "Do you want to build the NNTP version of rn (rrn)?"

        - For the name of the news server file: use the same name you used
        when building inews, above (for me, /usr/local/lib/news/server).

        Don't run makedepend yet! Go to the next step:

        2) Edit config.h. Change the "#define ROOTID ..." line to
                #define ROOTID 0
        if it isn't already.

        3) In rrn-4.4.pl3, there is a small bug with SIGEMT: it doesn't exist
        on Linux. rn used SIGEMT to check if a process is still running;
        however, under POSIX.1 we can instead just send the process a
        signal 0.

        Edit init.c. On line 243, note the following:
                if (kill(processnum, SIGEMT)) {
        Change this to
                if (kill(processnum, 0)) {

        You may wish to #ifdef it out instead; it's up to you. Don't just define
        SIGEMT to be zero; this will break the sigignore() call in final.c.

        4) Issue "makedepend > makedepend.out".

        5) Issue "make". Rn should compile happily.

        6) Issue "make install".

        You're all set. Keep in mind that rn does in fact eat a lot of memory
        (as does any newsreader), handling the newsgroups file. So when you
        first run rn, it might be a little slow building your .newsrc and
        checking for new groups. If you're impatient, copy a .newsrc from
        somewhere else and use that.