Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Tue, 15 Dec 1998 04:00:00



After installing the entire fileset from CDROM onto one
single partition of a 1.3G disk(swap on a separate partition) I have had
no luck getting linux to boot. Here's the tail of the bootup sequence:

VFS  Mounted root (hfs) file system readonly
Freeing unused kernel memory 124k init 32k prep
Warning: Unable to open an initial console.
Kernel panic: No init found. Try passing init= option to kernel
Rebooting in 180 seconds.

----
And here's my hardware setup
Mac 9500 with Newertech 266 G3 Upgrade CPU installed
Two HP C2223 hd, a tape drive, a 2940UW with yet another HD, a NTCS
video card, and a couple other external peripherals that I leave turned
off.

------
The linux disk is one of the HP C2223 1.3Gbyte drives.
What do you suggest I set init to?
Apparently the disk is being mounted but why is it
mounting up in readonly?
I can understand the Warning message; I've got an
unsupported video card. I get around this by setting the
"No video driver" radio buttun in MacX.
Using the "LinuxDisks" utility provided on the CDROM I
can see that all the linux files are installed on the HD.
Thinking that what the os is looking for is the linux init
program, I double checked that it does indeed exist at
/sbin/init right where I'd expect to find it. I even tried to
add a kernel argument to BootX of init=/sbin/init but this
didn't help.

Please help.

Thanks,

Mike Kirkpatrick

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Dietmar Herrend?rfe » Wed, 16 Dec 1998 04:00:00



> Kernel panic: No init found. Try passing init= option to kernel
> Rebooting in 180 seconds.

...

Quote:> I can understand the Warning message; I've got an
> unsupported video card. I get around this by setting the
> "No video driver" radio buttun in MacX.

The OpenFirmware video driver will eventually start, and
graphics should work (even if a bit slow). Therefore I guess
it is safe to assume, that there is no real problem here.

Are you sure, that you have set the root-partition to the
correct value in BootX? Probably "init" isn't found, because
the boot procedure is looking for it on the wrong partition?!
In general your kernel gets booted, but then the kernel is
stored on the MacOS partition/drive and therefore this tells
very little about the Linux installation on the Linux partition(s).
However, immediately after loading the kernel things go
wrong (init is the first thing to run). So my guess is that for
some reason your linux-installation isn't found or is
unreadable by/for BootX.

Good Luck
Dietmar

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Wed, 16 Dec 1998 04:00:00




> > Kernel panic: No init found. Try passing init= option to kernel
> > Rebooting in 180 seconds.

> ....

> > I can understand the Warning message; I've got an
> > unsupported video card. I get around this by setting the
> > "No video driver" radio buttun in MacX.

> The OpenFirmware video driver will eventually start, and
> graphics should work (even if a bit slow). Therefore I guess
> it is safe to assume, that there is no real problem here.

> Are you sure, that you have set the root-partition to the
> correct value in BootX? Probably "init" isn't found, because
> the boot procedure is looking for it on the wrong partition?!
> In general your kernel gets booted, but then the kernel is
> stored on the MacOS partition/drive and therefore this tells
> very little about the Linux installation on the Linux partition(s).
> However, immediately after loading the kernel things go
> wrong (init is the first thing to run). So my guess is that for
> some reason your linux-installation isn't found or is
> unreadable by/for BootX.

> Good Luck
> Dietmar

Dietmar and Steven,

Thanks for responding to my cry for help. Here's a bit more to the
story that I hope will generate more discussion.

Steven wrote a similar suggestion about making sure that I was entering
the correct device path in BootX. I have problems with this as explained

below.


> Make sure you correctly set the location of the root partition in
bootX.
> (For example, it might be something like root=/dev/sda5.  LinuxDisks
can
> tell you the partition name of the root partition.)

Ah well that's the rub. I believe my 9500 suffers from the buggy version

of Open Firmware (OF) as documented in one of the appendices of the
install
manual, where if I specify anything other than zero for the partition,
OF will "fall over itself" and not mount the root volume at all.

So what I've been entering in BootX for a root device is /dev/sdc0
rather
than where root really is - /dev/sdc3. The instructions claim that a
zero
partition is an instruction to OF to mount the first bootable partition
it finds as root. Well that _is_ the case on my disk. I have this:
partition 1: mac mapper
partition 2: linux swap
partition 3: linux root (everything)

I tried to remove the first partition off the disk, a mac mapper
partition,
but even the initialize command in fdisk didn't get rid of it. And i
_think_
fdisk insisted on putting the swap partition in front of the root
partition
as I was setting those two up. If there's a way to make root the first
partition on the disk, I'd certainly be open to doing that.

Or, is there a patch to OF so that I can specify the correct device
path?

Even though the boot messages seem to indicate that the root partition
was mounted, the fact that vmlinux can't find init suggests the
opposite,
just as Dietmar suggests.

I've tried entering "init=/sbin/init" in the kernel arguments line of
BootX, it didn't help. Of course it didn't, the root partition isn't
really
online yet, inspite of the log message.

So how do I work around the OF bug to get linux's root partition
mounted?

Thanks,

Mike Kirkpatrick

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Wed, 16 Dec 1998 04:00:00


Sorry, but just in case it matters, I am trying to use vmlinux version
2.1.130.
The one shipped with the CD didn't work with BootX. So I snagged the newer
one off the net somewhere.

Could this be a source of problems?  Is there an ideal version of vmlinux
for
the 9500 model?

Seems like it would be great for those in the know to summarize
the most recent several versions of linux and tabularize the changes from
one to the next and to list the machines that have been confirmed to be
compatible
with each version.

I know, I know, dream on...

Mike Kirkpatrick

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Steven G. Johns » Wed, 16 Dec 1998 04:00:00



> Seems like it would be great for those in the know to summarize
> the most recent several versions of linux and tabularize the changes from
> one to the next and to list the machines that have been confirmed to be
> compatible  with each version.

For changelogs, see:

http://edge.linuxhq.com/changelist.cgi?show=2.1.

Cordially,
Steven G. Johnson

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Steven G. Johns » Wed, 16 Dec 1998 04:00:00



> Kernel panic: No init found. Try passing init= option to kernel
> Rebooting in 180 seconds.

Make sure you correctly set the location of the root partition in bootX.
(For example, it might be something like root=/dev/sda5.  LinuxDisks can
tell you the partition name of the root partition.)

Cordially,
Steven G. Johnson

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Niels Roes » Thu, 17 Dec 1998 04:00:00


<snip>

Quote:> Ah well that's the rub. I believe my 9500 suffers from the buggy version

> of Open Firmware (OF) as documented in one of the appendices of the
> install
> manual, where if I specify anything other than zero for the partition,
> OF will "fall over itself" and not mount the root volume at all.

> So what I've been entering in BootX for a root device is /dev/sdc0
> rather
> than where root really is - /dev/sdc3. The instructions claim that a
> zero
> partition is an instruction to OF to mount the first bootable partition
> it finds as root. Well that _is_ the case on my disk. I have this:
> partition 1: mac mapper
> partition 2: linux swap
> partition 3: linux root (everything)

Hiya Mike.
Let me give you a more complete story on booting.
There are two ways to boot:
1) OF
2) BootX.
So, you use one of the two. If you use OF, you have the bug, and you
have to enter /dev/sdc0 in the bootvars application.
If you use BootX, OF is looong gone (only when boots, not while
switching OS's) and there is no bug, so you just enter /dev/sdc3 in
bootX.

Quote:> I tried to remove the first partition off the disk, a mac mapper
> partition,
> but even the initialize command in fdisk didn't get rid of it. And i
> _think_
> fdisk insisted on putting the swap partition in front of the root
> partition
> as I was setting those two up. If there's a way to make root the first
> partition on the disk, I'd certainly be open to doing that.

It's quite essential for the mac mapper partition to be one.
This is because the contents of this partition are...
the location of the other partitions.

Quote:> Or, is there a patch to OF so that I can specify the correct device
> path?

There probably is, but it's of not much use. At least, that's my
experience. I once saw a patch for the 7600-range so the monitor
would come on each time instead of randomly every second boot. It
involved typing in ~10 lines of fortran in OF WITHOUT a typo (like:
typo? do it over again) and saving it in pram. Which obviously
had to be reset because of some flaky error again.

Quote:

> Even though the boot messages seem to indicate that the root partition
> was mounted, the fact that vmlinux can't find init suggests the
> opposite,
> just as Dietmar suggests.

The boot messages are tricky. Maybe /dev/sdc0 gets mounted, but
that's not the right partition. Moreover, the first file the kernel
gets is 'init', so that's the first time an error is detected.
I had the same problem while switching from mklinux DR2 (big-endian)
to linuxppc (little-endian)

Hope this helps,
Niels

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Sat, 19 Dec 1998 04:00:00


Quote:> Whoops, I meant to say I don't see anything in LinuxDisks that reports
> partition numbers. It just lets me open up the various drives and _view_
> the partitions.

Thanks,

Mike Kirkpatrick

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Sat, 19 Dec 1998 04:00:00


Hi guys,

I'm getting real close to booting now, but have a very weird story to tell.

After starting over from scratch several times, reformatting the drive,
reinstalling
linux from the CDROM, etc I ran out of logical things to try. So I did the
next thing -
enter a device path that was (should be) completely wrong! Don't ask me why
I
did, but now I'm on to something. I'm not quite home yet because of swap
partition
accessing problems that I hope you can help me with. Here's the story so
far.

I reformatted the drive using the HP (mac) driver, used pdisk to add two
Apple_Unix_Svr partitions for linux - root and swap.  So after this step I
had four partitions. Here's what pdisk reports.

Partition map (with 512 byte blocks) on '/dev/scsi1.2' (/dev/sdc)
 #:                type name    length   base    ( size )




------------
Notice that pdisk calls this disk "/dev/sdc". (That's why I had been trying
to enter
"sdc2" as the entry in BootX. That  didn't work and "sdc0" gave a false (?)
boot
message but didn't really boot.)

Then I ran the installer.coff from the floppy. It guessed correctly the
names of the
partitions for root and swap, namely sdc2 and sdc3, respectively.
The install went smoothly as always.

Now the crazy part! Since the supposed correct entry "sdc2" would not work
in BootX, I entered "sdd2". This caused the kernel to boot. Now I'm really
confused.
This other disk "sdd" is a purely Mac disk. I've only got one disk that's
configured
with Apple_UNIX_SVR2 partitions and that's "sdc".  Weird Huh?

So linux boots, but only allows me into run level 6 - diagnostic mode
because
it can't find the swap partition. It's still looking for it at /dev/sdc3.
This ought
to be correct, but its NOT finding it there.

Can anyone tell why this discrepancy in device names?

Can you tell me how to update linux to look for the swap partition in the
"right"
place, which I suppose is /dev/sdd3 based on where it found the root
partition.
Would this be handled by a directive in the BootX "Extra Kernel Args" edit
line?
I tried entering "swap=/dev/sdd3" but that seemed to be ignored.

At this point /etc/fstab looks like the following:

/dev/sdc2    /    ext2    defaults    1    1
/dev/sdc3    swap    swap    defaults    0    0
... and the others ...

Should these change? To what?

Isn't this the damnedest thing?  At least I'm getting somewhere!

If you've made it through this long message I want to thank you for any
help
you could give. Thanks a lot to Dietmar, Niels and Steve for your help so
far.

Yours,

Mike Kirkpatrick

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Niels Roes » Sat, 19 Dec 1998 04:00:00


<snip snip>

Quote:> Now the crazy part! Since the supposed correct entry "sdc2" would not work
> in BootX, I entered "sdd2". This caused the kernel to boot. Now I'm really
> confused.
> This other disk "sdd" is a purely Mac disk. I've only got one disk that's
> configured
> with Apple_UNIX_SVR2 partitions and that's "sdc".  Weird Huh?

That's indeed weird??? There is obviously some naming problem here...
I suppose pdisk on mac is using a different approach of finding out the
letter.
Here's what happens normally on linuxppc (be* brackets assumptions):
The SCSI bus is scanned for devices (your UW adaptor also too).
Depending on the SCSI-number, your devices get named. On my computer for
example, I have two internal HD's. One on ID 0, one on ID 1. The first
HD gets /dev/hda, the second /dev/hdb. If I would change it to ID 4,
it would STILL get /dev/hdb (despite the fact that my CD-rom has ID 3).
Now here's the problem: if your pdisk puts your UW BEFORE your internal
chip,
or the other way round (anyway different than your kernel) than you
have a slight problem, i.e. the naming scheme alters.
Solution: use the kernel name, /dev/sdd.

<snip>

Quote:> Can you tell me how to update linux to look for the swap partition in the
> "right"
> place, which I suppose is /dev/sdd3 based on where it found the root
> partition.
> Would this be handled by a directive in the BootX "Extra Kernel Args" edit
> line?
> I tried entering "swap=/dev/sdd3" but that seemed to be ignored.

> At this point /etc/fstab looks like the following:

> /dev/sdc2    /    ext2    defaults    1    1
> /dev/sdc3    swap    swap    defaults    0    0
> ... and the others ...

> Should these change? To what?

> Isn't this the damnedest thing?  At least I'm getting somewhere!

> If you've made it through this long message I want to thank you for any
> help
> you could give. Thanks a lot to Dietmar, Niels and Steve for your help so
> far.

> Yours,

> Mike Kirkpatrick

Well, you should change your /etc/fstab then.. Try linuxdisks or
something.
You can do it while in diagnostic mode, but you have to remount your
disk with a hairy command so you can write to it. try `man mount`,
it should look something like 'mount /dev/sdd2 / -o rw -o remount`

Btw, if this doesn't help, post your hd's configs including ID numbers.

Good luck,
Niels

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Dietmar Herrendorfe » Sun, 20 Dec 1998 04:00:00



> Hi guys,

> I'm getting real close to booting now, but have a very weird story to tell.
> ...

This starts getting really interesting, well you might see this in a slightly
different light.;-). Anyhow I think things become somewhat clearer now.

Do I read all you messages correctly, if I assume that you did install
LinuxPPC using a boot floppy containing "installer.coff" and now you
switched to using BootX using kernel 2.1.130? If so, then this is my
current guess at what happens in your case:
Your Mac has three SCSI controllers: Two on the motherboard (MESH
controller 10MB/s, and the external 5MB/s device) and an additional PCI
UW-SCSI controller. The two onboard controllers are pretty standard and
have been around for some time, and therefore are supported by the older
kernels. Such a kernel  will have been used to build the "installer.coff"
image on your boot floppy. To boot via BootX however - as you have
noticed - you need newer kernel revisions (> 2.1.125). I strongely
suspect, that these newer kernels change your device-names, simply
because in contrast to the older kernel they also detect the additional
drive you have on your UW-SCSI controller.
Well, something like this at least. What I don't like about this idea is,
that I wouldn't know how you possibly end up with device names
/dev/sdd? having "just" three harddrives in the system (which should
be /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc).

In any case, if you are able to boot, can you see the boot messages
on the screen, or run "dmesg".  Look out for a section, which looks like:

--cut - paste begin -------------------------------------
scsi0 : MESH
scsi1 : 53C94
scsi : 2 hosts.
mesh: target 0 synchronous at 10.0 MB/s
...
... (several lines removed)
...
 Vendor: IBM       Model: DCAS-34330        Rev: S65A
  Type:   Direct-Access                      ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Detected scsi disk sdb at scsi0, channel 0, id 6, lun 0
  Vendor: DEC       Model: TLZ06     (C)DEC  Rev: 0374
  Type:   Sequential-Access                  ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Detected scsi tape st0 at scsi1, channel 0, id 4, lun 0
scsi : detected 1 SCSI tape 2 SCSI cdroms 2 SCSI disks total.
Uniform CDROM driver Revision: 2.50
sr1: scsi3-mmc drive: 2x/6x writer cd/rw xa/form2 cdda tray
SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 2131992 [1041 MB] [1.0 GB]
SCSI device sdb: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 8467200 [4134 MB] [4.1 GB]
eth0: MACE at 00:05:9a:c0:21:98
Partition check:
 sda: sda1 sda2 sda3 sda4 sda5 sda6
 sdb: sdb1 sdb2 sdb3 sdb4 sdb5 sdb6 sdb7
-- cut -paste end ---------------------------------------------

From this you should have no problem to find out, what your current kernel
thinks about attached SCSI devices and which device names (sd?) are being
assigned to which piece of hardware.
Also have a look at "/etc/mtab" or use a "df" to see which partition is
mounted
as "/". Does this really show /dev/sdd2!? as being mounted on "/".
If all this convinces you, that your linux-partions are on /dev/sdd, well then
all
left to do is to edit /etc/fstab accordingly. Linux uses this file to decide
which
and how partitions should be mounted - only the mount point for "/" can be
changed through a boot parameter.

I hope, I am not completely off target with these assumptions,

Good Luck, Dietmar

 
 
 

Can't Boot Using BootX on 9500

Post by Mike Kirkpatric » Wed, 06 Jan 1999 04:00:00


Niels,


> Well, you should change your /etc/fstab then.. Try linuxdisks or
> something.
> You can do it while in diagnostic mode, but you have to remount your
> disk with a hairy command so you can write to it. try `man mount`,
> it should look something like 'mount /dev/sdd2 / -o rw -o remount`

> Btw, if this doesn't help, post your hd's configs including ID numbers.

> Good luck,
> Niels

 When I got home to do this I had forgotten the mount command you gave me above

and the news server was missing about half of all the threads (including this
one of yours)
so I tried a variation of your idea. I entered "-o rw" in the BootX "Other
Arguments" text entry
box and it worked! I got in in diagnostic mode WITH rw priveledges. Then I
edited the fstab
file and voila`, all fixed.

Thanks for the help.

And yes, I believe that the 2940UW disk must have been the cause of the
remapping
of disk names. But I haven't performed any experiments to prove it.

Mikek

 
 
 

1. BootX won't boot on my 9500

I can't get BootX to boot Linux on my Mac 9500.

I'm booting an "X" in the Ramdisk selection box and the
commandline empty.  Both the compressed ramdisk and the
uncompressed vmlinuz are in the System directory.

I can boot MacOS, but as soon as I select "Linux", the screen
goes blank and computer stops responding to anything until
it's rebooted.  I'd appreciate

Peter

--

703-516-7304/703-528-5918(FAX)
   "Engineering is the art of using a professional knowledge of
 mathematics and the physical sciences to improve the quality of
life."

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