NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by Xa » Fri, 03 May 2002 07:16:51



Hi everybody,

I'm a beginner of Linux and I want to know what is the philosophy of
each directory of linux.

For example I have deduced that /root is the directory for the root
user (and only for his/her).

Can someone tell me for what people/system use the rest of the
directories:

bin
boot
dev
etc
home
initrd
lib
misc
opt
sbin
tmp
var

and each subdirectory.

I'm interested specially in the usr directory.

And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
local programs for all the users?. For example in
/home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

Thanks in advance.

 
 
 

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by S » Fri, 03 May 2002 14:02:54



> I'm a beginner of Linux and I want to know what is the philosophy of
> each directory of linux.

Welcome to the domain!

Quote:> For example I have deduced that /root is the directory for the root
> user (and only for his/her).

> Can someone tell me for what people/system use the rest of the
> directories:

Read this from http://rute.sourceforge.net, it has a chapter dedicated
entirely for thsi purpose, the chapter was written by rusty russell,
afaik.

Quote:> And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
> local programs for all the users?. For example in
> /home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

You'd want them in /usr/local so that you can use them systemwide. it
makes more logical sense too.

cheers
-z

 
 
 

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by Xa » Sat, 04 May 2002 02:56:22


Quote:SP wrote...
> [...]

> Welcome to the domain!

Thank you, SP. I believe that I will not leave it never (well,
never..., when I will not be a newbee ;-))... :-)

Quote:

> > For example I have deduced that /root is the directory for the root
> > user (and only for his/her).

> > Can someone tell me for what people/system use the rest of the
> > directories:
> Read this from http://rute.sourceforge.net, it has a chapter dedicated
> entirely for thsi purpose, the chapter was written by rusty russell,
> afaik.

Thank you. This is a great document!. It has almost all that I want to
learn!. Thanks.

Quote:

> > And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
> > local programs for all the users?. For example in
> > /home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

> You'd want them in /usr/local so that you can use them systemwide. it
> makes more logical sense too.

Okay. But, what is the "systemwide"?. Why you put your programs in
/usr/local?
Can you explain me it with more details?. Thanks in advance.

Quote:

> cheers
> -z

Best regards,
Xan.
 
 
 

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by Matt van de Werke » Sat, 04 May 2002 20:48:52



> SP wrote...
>> [...]

>> Welcome to the domain!

> Thank you, SP. I believe that I will not leave it never (well,
> never..., when I will not be a newbee ;-))... :-)

>> > For example I have deduced that /root is the directory for the root
>> > user (and only for his/her).

>> > Can someone tell me for what people/system use the rest of the
>> > directories:
>> Read this from http://rute.sourceforge.net, it has a chapter dedicated
>> entirely for thsi purpose, the chapter was written by rusty russell,
>> afaik.

> Thank you. This is a great document!. It has almost all that I want to
> learn!. Thanks.

>> > And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
>> > local programs for all the users?. For example in
>> > /home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

>> You'd want them in /usr/local so that you can use them systemwide. it
>> makes more logical sense too.

> Okay. But, what is the "systemwide"?. Why you put your programs in
> /usr/local?
> Can you explain me it with more details?. Thanks in advance.

AFAIK, "/usr/local" is where you put your programs that are "local" to your
system. I use it to install stuff that didn't come with the distribution.
Then, if I ever want to reinstall (or upgrade, whatever), I just back up
/usr/local (in the /usr tree), and I know I haven't missed anything.

Cheers,
MvdW

 
 
 

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by Robert Newso » Sun, 05 May 2002 06:02:57




>>SP wrote...

>>>[...]

>>>Welcome to the domain!

>>Thank you, SP. I believe that I will not leave it never (well,
>>never..., when I will not be a newbee ;-))... :-)

>>>>For example I have deduced that /root is the directory for the root
>>>>user (and only for his/her).

>>>>Can someone tell me for what people/system use the rest of the
>>>>directories:

>>>Read this from http://rute.sourceforge.net, it has a chapter dedicated
>>>entirely for thsi purpose, the chapter was written by rusty russell,
>>>afaik.

>>Thank you. This is a great document!. It has almost all that I want to
>>learn!. Thanks.

>>>>And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
>>>>local programs for all the users?. For example in
>>>>/home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

>>>You'd want them in /usr/local so that you can use them systemwide. it
>>>makes more logical sense too.

By default /usr/local/bin is included in the path of users (unless you've
modified the default).

Quote:

>>Okay. But, what is the "systemwide"?. Why you put your programs in
>>/usr/local?
>>Can you explain me it with more details?. Thanks in advance.

'systemwide' basically means available to ALL users.  All the files that
exist in user fred's home directory are, for all intents and purposes, local
to him (esp if the directory has permissions 0700 (drwx------), in which
case only he [and root] can access them).  However, all the files that exist
in, say, /bin are available for all users to access them, and so are systemwide.

By putting any programs you install (as opposed to coming with the
distribution) into /usr/local, the commands that come with the system don't
get confused with them.  (Plus, when it comes to upgrading, as MvdW says
(below), you only need to back up /usr/local & you've got all your
additions.  Plus the upgrading may/re-installation will splat over the
system command directories, wiping out any entries you've made.)

- Show quoted text -

Quote:

> AFAIK, "/usr/local" is where you put your programs that are "local" to your
> system. I use it to install stuff that didn't come with the distribution.
> Then, if I ever want to reinstall (or upgrade, whatever), I just back up
> /usr/local (in the /usr tree), and I know I haven't missed anything.

> Cheers,
> MvdW

 
 
 

NB: What's the philosophy of each linux directory?

Post by Xa » Sun, 05 May 2002 08:23:18


Matt van de Werken wrote...

Quote:> >> > And another question: where is the most recomendable directory to put
> >> > local programs for all the users?. For example in
> >> > /home/install_programs (or someone else) or /usr/local/ourprograms?

> >> You'd want them in /usr/local so that you can use them systemwide. it
> >> makes more logical sense too.

> > Okay. But, what is the "systemwide"?. Why you put your programs in
> > /usr/local?
> > Can you explain me it with more details?. Thanks in advance.

> AFAIK, "/usr/local" is where you put your programs that are "local" to your
> system. I use it to install stuff that didn't come with the distribution.
> Then, if I ever want to reinstall (or upgrade, whatever), I just back up
> /usr/local (in the /usr tree), and I know I haven't missed anything.

> Cheers,
> MvdW

Hi Matt,
Thank you.

I read the pages of the manual (that provide SP) refering to
filesystem directories and it seems that SP and you are wright!: the
local programs have to install in /usr/local (if we want that all
users can use them).

And in the directory /usr/local, the files don't update, and in /usr
yes. [...]

I will do it: I install all our programs in /usr/local.

Thank you very much, Matt, and my best regards.
Xan.

 
 
 

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