how do other people deal with new man pages?

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Edward J. Hartne » Thu, 29 Oct 1992 18:29:24



Hi! I'm the admin of a Sun IPC (running SunOS 4.1.1) and I have been
getting some really good free software off the net. I've been a
part-time admin for a few years (i.e. your job is to do this, this,
and this, and, oh yea, be the administrator of this system too), and I
was wonder if there's a good way to:

1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
who used it put it under their openwindows directories. I realize
that's it's totally up to me and I can put these things in /usr/local
until I turn blue in the face, but is there some kind of convention
that I don't know about?

2 - how about the man pages? I can either copy the man file to the man
directory, create a link to it in that directory, or add the new
directory to my users' manpath. What do other do?

Thanks!
                Ed
--

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by John Ellithor » Fri, 30 Oct 1992 07:54:40



Quote:> Nntp-Posting-Host: khonshu.colorado.edu
> Hi! I'm the admin of a Sun IPC (running SunOS 4.1.1) and I have been
> getting some really good free software off the net. I've been a
> part-time admin for a few years (i.e. your job is to do this, this,
> and this, and, oh yea, be the administrator of this system too), and I
> was wonder if there's a good way to:
> 1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
> under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
> display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
> who used it put it under their openwindows directories. I realize
> that's it's totally up to me and I can put these things in /usr/local
> until I turn blue in the face, but is there some kind of convention
> that I don't know about?

Here's what I do, and by no means to I declare this to be some hard and fast
rule.  I put all software which I installed in /usr/local, this way whenever
updates come along, I can just dismount the /usr/local disk and upgrade the
system without having to worry about the new upgrade overwriting stuff I've
installed.  This only works if your /usr/local is on a separate disk (or just
partition) from /usr.

This method also allows me to keep track of all software that's been installed
so I don't forget I put something somewhere.  I'm sort of the forgetful type.
Just what you want in a system manager!?!

Quote:> 2 - how about the man pages? I can either copy the man file to the man
> directory, create a link to it in that directory, or add the new
> directory to my users' manpath. What do other do?

About the man pages.  I created one of those man directory structures under
/usr/local/man, so I have directories, /usr/local/man/man1, ...  I just put
all the installed software man pages here and just tell all my users to
have /usr/local/man in the MANPATH environment variables.  So far no hassles,
but somethings sure to come up.

John
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how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Marc Unang » Fri, 30 Oct 1992 11:49:10



[Where do you put local software?]

First, realize that this is a topic to start religious wars about
between sysadmins, similar to those fought over Emacs vs. vi and DOS
vs. Unix vs. the Mac (vs. your favorite pet architecture).

That said, I think the most popular method is to use /usr/local/bin
for local binaries.  This has the advantage of easily extending to
/usr/local/man for local manpages (with man1, man2, etc.
subdirectories), /usr/local/sbin for local system-administration
commands, /usr/local/etc for local configuration files, /usr/local/lib
for local libraries and such, and so forth.  Shrinkwrapped
applications can be installed either in /usr/local/bin or in
/usr/local/NameOfApp (i.e., /usr/local/Wingz for Wingz).  It also
allows you to easily unmount, back up, etc. /usr/local and grab all of
the local software.

If you wanted to be really sneaky, the first time you edited a
configuration file you would replace it with a symlink to
/usr/local/pathname (where pathname is the path of the file you're
changing), and then make your changes to the /usr/local copy.  This
would make identifying modified distribution files for system upgrades
really easy, but has drawbacks; among them, some of these files are
needed to boot the system, before /usr or /usr/local will be mounted.
SVR4 has done a pretty good job of isolating configuration stuff under
/etc, but the kernel link kit belongs somewhere else.

--
Marc Unangst, N8VRH         | "There are two ways to solve this problem:

                            | with the hard way."
                            |   - W. Scheider, from a Physics lecture

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Peter Stee » Fri, 30 Oct 1992 21:56:59


Quote:>Here's what I do, and by no means to I declare this to be some hard and fast
>rule.  I put all software which I installed in /usr/local, this way whenever
>updates come along, I can just dismount the /usr/local disk and upgrade the
>system without having to worry about the new upgrade overwriting stuff I've
>installed.  This only works if your /usr/local is on a separate disk (or just
>partition) from /usr.
>This method also allows me to keep track of all software that's been installed
>so I don't forget I put something somewhere.  I'm sort of the forgetful type.
>Just what you want in a system manager!?!
>> 2 - how about the man pages? I can either copy the man file to the man
>> directory, create a link to it in that directory, or add the new
>> directory to my users' manpath. What do other do?
>About the man pages.  I created one of those man directory structures under
>/usr/local/man, so I have directories, /usr/local/man/man1, ...  I just put
>all the installed software man pages here and just tell all my users to
>have /usr/local/man in the MANPATH environment variables.  So far no hassles,
>but somethings sure to come up.

I do pretty much the same thing (I'm also forgetful), but I manage the
whole /usr/local environment with a package called "depot". This is
an invaluable tool. It allows me to present a unified universe to
the users but keep things separate from each other as far as the
sysadmin is concerned. Depot--don't leave home without it. Available
in many fine Archie centers worldwide....
--

Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS, Canada B0P 1X0  902-542-2201  Fax: 902-542-4364
 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Eric Siss » Fri, 30 Oct 1992 23:40:25



Quote:

>Hi! I'm the admin of a Sun IPC (running SunOS 4.1.1) and I have been
>getting some really good free software off the net. I've been a
>part-time admin for a few years (i.e. your job is to do this, this,
>and this, and, oh yea, be the administrator of this system too), and I
>was wonder if there's a good way to:

>1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
>under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
>display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
>who used it put it under their openwindows directories. I realize
>that's it's totally up to me and I can put these things in /usr/local
>until I turn blue in the face, but is there some kind of convention
>that I don't know about?

Having dabbled in *nix admin for a few years, I have slowly
come around to the point of view that the less non-system-vendor
stuff I drop into /usr, the happier I am.  I have started
putting everything into /usr/local, which is a separate
partition.  The most diddling I do to /usr is to add symbolic
links.  In /usr/local I have directories named X11, bin,
include, lib, man, and etc.  In etc I have daemons and
related files for such things as gopher, wais, and CAP.
I also have a file "rc.opt" which fires these things up
on bootup.  To launch this, I add the following lines to
/etc/rc.local --

#
# optional services
#
if [ -f /opt/etc/rc.opt ]; then
        sh /opt/etc/rc.opt
fi

Why is that path specified as "/opt" instead of as
"/usr/local"?  Several months ago in an issue of SunWorld
magazine, there was a preview article on Solaris 2.0 which
mentioned that Solaris had a "/opt" directory.  This directory
is intended to be the location for optional software.
Since this was exactly what I was already doing in SunOS
4.1.1, I simply renamed my mount point.  This may be the
convention you desire.

Peter Steele in another message mentions a package called
"depot", findable via archie, that he uses to manage the whole
/usr/local environment.  I am unfamiliar with this but
definitely intend to check it out.

--

Programmer Analyst III                                  voice: 713-792-6466
Department of Academic Computing - Box 549              fax:   713-794-5072
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Rahul Dhe » Sat, 31 Oct 1992 09:36:05



Quote:Unangst) writes:

[ put everything in /usr/local ]

The /usr prefix adds no useful information, so it is better to use just
/local.  So we have:

     /local/bin
     /local/man
     /local/lib

and so on.
--


 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Bryan Curnu » Sat, 31 Oct 1992 13:42:27



Quote:

>1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
>under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
>display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
>who used it put it under their openwindows directories.

Keep 'em under /usr/local.  That way, you only have one place to backup
and restore when you're installing a new version of the OS (if you have
to do a full install rather than upgrade) or copying the directory to a
new machine.  You also avoid confusing new sysadmin-types when you avoid
mixing locally-installed software with the OS software.

Quote:>2 - how about the man pages? I can either copy the man file to the man
>directory, create a link to it in that directory, or add the new
>directory to my users' manpath. What do other do?

We put them under /usr/local/man, and in our global .cshrc file (which is
sourced by each user's .cshrc file) add /usr/local/man to the MANPATH.
(We'd do the same in the system-wide profile file, if any of our users
used sh...)  This will work on your IPC, but may not work under other
versions of UNIX.
--
Any opinions above are mine, and do not necessarily reflect the views of SAI.
Bryan Curnutt

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Kurt Hill » Sat, 31 Oct 1992 17:50:29




>Unangst) writes:

>[ put everything in /usr/local ]

>The /usr prefix adds no useful information, so it is better to use just
>/local.  So we have:

>     /local/bin
>     /local/man
>     /local/lib

>and so on.
>--



Except that this puts them in the root filesystem instead of the
/usr filesystem.  If you've got a small root partition, this can
cause problems.

Of course you can put them in /usr/local and make a symbolic link
from /local to /usr/local.

--
Kurt Hillig

University of Michigan           Telephone (313)747-2867

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Bob Ha » Sat, 31 Oct 1992 23:16:16





Quote:|>>Unangst) writes:

|>>
|>>[ put everything in /usr/local ]
|>>
|>>The /usr prefix adds no useful information, so it is better to use just
|>>/local.  So we have:
|>>
|>>     /local/bin
|>>     /local/man
|>>     /local/lib
|>>
|>>and so on.
|>
|>Except that this puts them in the root filesystem instead of the
|>/usr filesystem.  If you've got a small root partition, this can
|>cause problems.

Why cannot /local be another partition entirely?

Actually, this sounds like the same thing Sun is doing with /opt
in Solaris 2.0, just with a different name choice.

---

        Computer Science Dept., G.M. Research and Environmental Staff
DISCLAIMER: Unless indicated otherwise, everything in this note is
personal opinion, not an official statement of General Motors Corp.

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Thomas Bretting » Sat, 31 Oct 1992 16:09:04



Quote:>1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
>under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
>display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
>who used it put it under their openwindows directories. I realize
>that's it's totally up to me and I can put these things in /usr/local
>until I turn blue in the face, but is there some kind of convention
>that I don't know about?

We use /usr/local/bin for "normal" programs and /usr/local/bin/X11 (or
something like that - I'd have to look it up...) for X clients.

Quote:>2 - how about the man pages? I can either copy the man file to the man
>directory, create a link to it in that directory, or add the new
>directory to my users' manpath. What do other do?

We put them under /usr/local/man and add this to the user's manpath.

I personally like it, if I can divide the stuff _I_ installed from the
original system programs.

Thomas
--


   (IRC)     Wish                                             -- Timm Ganske

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Thomas Sippel - D » Sun, 01 Nov 1992 05:50:43



- [Where do you put local software?]
-
- First, realize that this is a topic to start religious wars about
- between sysadmins, similar to those fought over Emacs vs. vi and DOS
- vs. Unix vs. the Mac (vs. your favorite pet architecture).

Well, yes. But it is a real problem, and system managers tend to solve
it for their own convenience rather than the user's. First there were
commands in /bin, and manual pages for them in /man, then most of them
moved to /usr/...

Then we had and /usr/ucb and /usr/new and /usr/local (on Ultrix) and
/usr/local/bin

Now you get with any self respecting application:

    o  binaries
    o  man pages
    o  error message files
    o  resource files
    o  font files
    o  example files
    o  interactive help files
    o  startup and startup-default files

Come proper internationalisation (AIX makes already a good stab at it)
you need the man pages, messages, and examples in different languages,
and the resource files would benefit from internationalization too -
(remember, all user-visible text must be in the user's language)

You also may want different resource sets for various hardware setups,
so that when you design your perfect color scheme for one terminal you do
not get glorious black on black on a monochrome screen, or fleaprints as
characters when you come to a display with a higher pixel density.

From the administrators point of view it is neat to have all files
belonging to an application under one directory, from a users point of view
this is a pain, as every time a new application comes in all users have to
change their PATH, MANPATH etc. This is necessary because once the novelty
of an rarely used application has worn off, *nobody* knows any more what
has to be changed to use it.

I still remember being supinely told by a system administrator that
if I wanted to use jove, I'd better put /usr/local/jove/bin onto my PATH,
a directory containing two binaries (you guessed it, jove and teachjove)
and he wasn't having his system installation cluttered up with them.

Just to add to the flame-bait ...                 Thomas
--
*** This is the operative statement, all previous statements are inoperative.

*   voice: +44 71 589 5111 x4937 or 4934 (day), or +44 71 823 9497 (fax)
*   snail: Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
*   The Center for Computing Services, Kensington SW7 2BX, Great Britain

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Nancy Millig » Fri, 30 Oct 1992 10:21:57



Quote:

> 1 - decide where in the file system to put these? I usually stick them
> under /usr/local, but recently I got this xv thing, an X window
> display thing for gifs, and I gethered from net.talk that most people
> who used it put it under their openwindows directories. I realize
> that's it's totally up to me and I can put these things in /usr/local
> until I turn blue in the face, but is there some kind of convention
> that I don't know about?
> [stuff deleted].

> 2 - how about the man pages?

There really isn't a concrete convention, but many people put their
local binaries in /usr/local/bin.   Here's what I did and it seems to
be working out fairly well, so far.

/usr/local:

bin     -       For binaries accessible to the general public.  Everyone
                should have this in their path.

admin   -       System administrator tools.

lib     -       For local libraries, perl libraries, gnu-libraries , etc.

man     -       I toss all my local man pages in here and then make a
                link into the appropriate place in /usr/man/manx.  I wrote
                a little script to redo all the links every night.

                Example: /usr/man/man1/perl.1 -> /usr/local/man/perl.1
                         /usr/man/man8/expire.8 -> /usr/local/man/expire.8

src     -       Source code for all my goodies installed in /usr/local/bin.

toys    -       Games.

data    -       Data files for my home grown software in /usr/local/{admin,bin}.

dotfiles -      Someday I'll put a generic set of .* files (.cshrc, .login)
                here and make links into the user's directories.  

graphics -      These are gifs that I use as backgrounds on the SparcStations.
                I try to keep a pool of them so that users won't have to
                each have their own set and take up a lot of disk space.

sounds  -       Sounds for SparcSTation.  Same philosophy as graphics.

I like this setup pretty well.  It works out better than some I've tried
in the past.

--

Titan Linkabit                                  cts!dale!npm
3033 Science Park Road
San Diego, CA 92121

 
 
 

how do other people deal with new man pages?

Post by Peter Stee » Wed, 04 Nov 1992 03:19:07


Quote:>Well, yes. But it is a real problem, and system managers tend to solve
>it for their own convenience rather than the user's. First there were
>commands in /bin, and manual pages for them in /man, then most of them
>moved to /usr/...

I've mentioned this before in this thread, but just in case someone
missed it, you can keep both users and sysadmins happy by using a
package called depot. This allows you to present a unified environment
to the users with /usr/local/{bin,man,lib,etc} and so on, but still
keep everything separate to keep the sysadmins sane. I can't imagine
managing a system without depot, now that I've starting using it.
Just ask archie if you want to give depot a try....
--

Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS, Canada B0P 1X0  902-542-2201  Fax: 902-542-4364