In addition, translations of the HOWTO's are available from
sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations and mirrors
worldwide. Translations in the following languages are available:
Chinese (zh) Croatian(hr)
French (fr) German (de)
Hellenic (el) Indonesian (id)
Italian (it) Japanese (jp)
Korean (ko) Polish (pl)
Spanish (es) Slovenian (sl)
Swedish (sv) Turkish (tr)
The HOWTO's are also on the Web, at the Linux Documentation Project's
Home Page, http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP.
More of these documents are always in preparation. Please get in touch
with Timothy Bynum, tjby...@sunsite.unc.edu, the HOWTO
coordinator, if you are interested in writing one. The file
sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX contains guidelines
for writing a HOWTO. He has a Web page that lists current HOWTO
updates and additions at
The Guide Series produced by the Linux Documentation Project is
available from http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP. Please read them if
you are new to Unix and Linux. Here is a list of those available so
* The Linux Documentation Project Manifesto, by Matt Welsh.
* Installation and Getting Started Guide, by Matt Welsh.
* The Linux Kernel, by David Rusling.
* The Network Administrator's Guide, by Olaf Kirch.
* The Linux Programmer's Guide, by Sven Goldt, Sven van der
Meer, Scott Burkett, and Matt Welsh.
* The Linux System Administrator's Guide, Version 0.5, by Lars
There is a FAQ for Linux kernel developers at
There is also a FAQ specifically for the Red Hat Linux distribution,
2.2 Where should I look on the World Wide Web for Linux stuff?
Two Web pages in particular provide good starting point for general
Linux information: Linux International's Home Page, at
http://www.li.org, and the Linux Online's Linux Home Page at
Both of these pages provide links to other sites, information about
general information, distributions, new software, documentation, and
Greg Hankins, gr...@cc.gatech.edu, maintains the Linux
Documentation Project Home Page, at http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP.
This page refers to all of the HOWTO's and FAQ's, both those which are
available in HTML (WWW) format, and those which aren't.
2.3 What newsgroups are there for Linux?
Comp.os.linux.announce is the moderated announcements group; you
should read this if you intend to use Linux: it contains information
about software updates, new ports, user group meetings, and commercial
products. It is the ONLY newsgroup that may carry commercial postings.
Submissions for that group should be e-mailed to
comp.os.linux.announce, however, is not archived on DejaNews or Alta
Vista. The only archive for the news group seems to be
Also worth reading are the following other groups in the
comp.os.linux.* hierarchy--you may find many common problems too
recent for the documentation but are answered in the newsgroups.
Remember that Linux is POSIX compatible, and most all of the material
in comp.unix.* and comp.windows.x.* groups will be relevant. Apart
from hardware considerations, and some obscure or very technical
low-level issues, you'll find that these groups are good places to
Please read "You still haven't answered my question!" before
posting. Cross posting between different comp.os.linux.* groups is
rarely a good idea.
There may well be Linux groups local to your institution or
area--check there first.
See also "I don't have Usenet access. Where do I get
Other regional and local newsgroups also exist--you may find the
traffic more manageable there. The French Linux newsgroup is
fr.comp.os.linux. The German one is de.comp.os.linux. In Australia,
try aus.computers.linux. In Croatia there is hr.comp.linux. In Italy,
there is it.comp.linux.
2.4 Where can I find out about Linux and the Millennium (Y2K) bug?
The Debian/GNU Linux people have a statement on their Web site at
http://www.debian.org Another place you can find Y2K information
Essentially, Linux uses libraries that store dates as 32-bit integers,
which count the seconds since 1970. This counter will not overflow
until the year 2038, by which time the library programmers will
(hopefully) have upgraded the system software to store dates as 64-bit
This, of course, does not mean that applications are not susceptible
to the millennium bug, if they do not use the standard library
The Free Software Foundation has a Web page about Y2K issues in GNU
software at http://www.fsf.org/software/year2000.html
There is also a Usenet newsgroup, comp.software.year-2000, for general
discussion of Y2K issues.
2.5 Where can I get Linux material by FTP?
There are three main archive sites for Linux:
* ftp.funet.fi (Finland) : /pub/OS/Linux
* sunsite.unc.edu (US) : /pub/Linux
* tsx-11.mit.edu (US) : /pub/linux
The best place to get the Linux kernel is
ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/. Linus Torvalds uploads
the most recent kernel versions to this site.
Of the U.S. distributions, Debian GNU/Linux is available at
ftp.debian.org/pub/debian. Red Hat Linux's home site is
ftp.redhat.com, and Linux Slackware's is ftp.cdrom.com.
The contents of these sites is mirrored (copied, usually approximately
daily) by a number of other sites. Please use a site close to you--it
will be faster for you and easier on the network.
* ftp.sun.ac.za/pub/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa)
* ftp.is.co.za/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa)
* ftp.cs.cuhk.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong)
* ftp://sunsite.ust.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong)
* ftp.spin.ad.jp/pub/linux/sunsite.unc.edu/ (Japan)
* ftp.nuri.net/pub/Linux/ (Korea)
* ftp.jaring.my/pub/Linux/ (Malaysia)
* ftp.nus.sg/pub/unix/Linux/ (Singapore)
* ftp.nectec.or.th/pub/mirrors/linux/ (Thailand)
* mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/linux/ (Australia)
* sunsite.anu.edu.au/pub/linux/ (Australia)
* ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/linux/ (Australia)
* ftp.univie.ac.at/systems/linux/sunsite/ (Austria)
* ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/UNIX/linux/ (Czech Republic)
* ftp://sunsite.fri.uni-lj.si/pub/linux/ (Slovenia)
* ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux/sunsite/ (Finland)
* ftp.univ-angers.fr/pub/Linux/ (France)
* ftp.iut-bm.univ-fcomte.fr (France)
* ftp.ibp.fr/pub/linux/sunsite/ (France)
* ftp.loria.fr/pub/linux/sunsite/ (France)
* ftp.dfv.rwth-aachen.de/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.germany.eu.net/pub/os/Linux/Mirror.SunSITE/ (Germany)
* ftp.tu-dresden.de/pub/Linux/sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/Linux/MIRROR.sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/mirrors/sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/pub/linux/mirror.sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.ba-mannheim.de/pub/linux/mirror.sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.uni-paderborn.de/pub/Mirrors/sunsite.unc.edu/ (Germany)
* ftp.uni-rostock.de/Linux/sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.uni-tuebingen.de/pub/linux/Mirror.sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.rz.uni-ulm.de/pub/mirrors/linux/sunsite/ (Germany)
* ftp.kfki.hu/pub/linux/ (Hungary)
* linux.italnet.it/pub/Linux/ (Italy)
* ftp.unina.it/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Italy)
* giotto.unipd.it/pub/unix/Linux/ (Italy)
* cnuce-arch.cnr.it/pub/Linux/ (Italy)
* ftp.flashnet.it/mirror2/sunsite.unc.edu/ (Italy)
* ftp.nijenrode.nl/pub/linux/sunsite.unc-mirror/ (Netherlands)
* ftp.LeidenUniv.nl/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Netherlands)
* ftp.nvg.unit.no/pub/linux/sunsite/ (Norway)
* ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/Linux/sunsite.unc.edu/ (Poland)
* ftp.rediris.es/software/os/linux/sunsite/ (Spain)
* sunsite.rediris.es/software/linux/ (Spain)
* ftp.cs.us.es/pub/Linux/sunsite-mirror/ (Spain)
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