Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by sal.. » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00



 First, I admit my sins: I am a primarily NT Admin, trying to break
into the *NIX world.

Now, to the problems.  I just inherited admin-ning of a SparcServer 20
and a SparcServer5, both running Solaris 2.6. Both installs are
straight out of the box, done by another NT Admin.  IP works, my
colleague didn't set the /etc/inet/hosts file, so local name pinging
doesn't work, but that's fixable.

Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
where/ what file do I edit to set it.  I can ping IP's inside my local
network, but that's about it.

After I get that fixed, I have a copy of a Super Kernel Patch that
needs to be installed prior to installing Oracle 8: I burned it onto CD
from my home Win98PC last night, but it's telling me that something is
corrupt when I try to un-tar it.  Any Suggestions ???

Last newbie question, and possibly an underlying problem: on boot, I
get large quantities of messages telling me that /var is out of
filespace.  Suggestions, comments, or am I missing something REALLY
basic ???

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
Member, Dogbert's New Ruling Class

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Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by hume.spamfil.. » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00



> Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
> where/ what file do I edit to set it.  I can ping IP's inside my local

Default gateway = default router, which is set in /etc/defaultrouter.  If
the file doesn't exist, just create it.  It contains a single line, the IP
address of the default gateway.

Then, you can reboot, or, if you'd prefer not to:
   route add -net default <ip address of router> 1

Quote:> from my home Win98PC last night, but it's telling me that something is
> corrupt when I try to un-tar it.  Any Suggestions ???

Did you download the file in ASCII mode accidentally?

Quote:> get large quantities of messages telling me that /var is out of
> filespace.  Suggestions, comments, or am I missing something REALLY

Its likely the last admin used the default Solaris layout for disks, which
I think allocates far too little space to /var.  Use 'df -k /var' to find
out the usage.  Primary places to look for stuff to kill is /var/adm
(the log directory... don't touch utmp/utmpx, but wtmp/wtmpx can get very
large, along with other logfiles in that directory).  Also /var/cron contains
logs for the cron daemon, and those can rage out of control.

--
Brandon Hume    - hume -> BOFH.Halifax.NS.Ca, http://WWW.BOFH.Halifax.NS.Ca/
                       -> Solaris Snob and general NOCMonkey

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Keith A. Glas » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00





> > Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
> > where/ what file do I edit to set it.  I can ping IP's inside my
local

> Default gateway = default router, which is set

in /etc/defaultrouter.  If

Quote:> the file doesn't exist, just create it.  It contains a single line,
the IP
> address of the default gateway.

> Then, you can reboot, or, if you'd prefer not to:
>    route add -net default <ip address of router> 1

**KNEW** I had missed something.....

Quote:> > from my home Win98PC last night, but it's telling me that something
is
> > corrupt when I try to un-tar it.  Any Suggestions ???

> Did you download the file in ASCII mode accidentally?

Nope: but will d/l again, using an FTP agent instead of Internet
Exploiter. . . .

Quote:> > get large quantities of messages telling me that /var is out of
> > filespace.  Suggestions, comments, or am I missing something REALLY

> Its likely the last admin used the default Solaris layout for disks,
which
> I think allocates far too little space to /var.  Use 'df -k /var' to
find
> out the usage.  Primary places to look for stuff to kill is /var/adm
> (the log directory... don't touch utmp/utmpx, but wtmp/wtmpx can get
very
> large, along with other logfiles in that directory).  Also /var/cron
contains
> logs for the cron daemon, and those can rage out of control.

We're probably going to re-do the box anyway: any real-world
suggestions for space alloc in install ????

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

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Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Gijs Wuy » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00


I'm as new as you are, and asked same question yesterday, and this
what I wrote afterwards to somebody having the same problem:
1.
I Just had the same problem, and I asked my question just before you
(network Config--> Gijs Wuyts)
The reason why is that Sol setup does not allow for a gateway(router)
to be configured, it assumes the dns servers are on the same network.

The solution is quit simple: (I have to thank many people for this
Continue the setup with the parameters you entered, and Confirm at
least twice (the 2nd time he'll give the error message " An error has
occured, go back and correct " or something like that.
I just closed the dialog box and the setup continues. After everything
was installed, he reboots,a nd boots up with only local network
connectivity. pinging on my own subnet works.

Then I created a file /etc/defaultrouter with only the IP of the
Gatewayaddress for that network. Next time you reboot it will work.

Manually you can just give the command "route add default
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" x's being your gateway address. this gets you on the
way immediately.
now you have Ip connectivity, but not yet DNS resolving.
I'm right now working on that, but I'm making a text file,
/etc/resolv.conf which contains the following: (copied from man pages)

Creating the resolv.conf File
A simple example resolv.conf file for a client (non-server) machine in
the
doc.com domain is shown in Code Example 121:
CODE EXAMPLE 121 Sample resolv.conf File
; Sample resolv.conf file for the machine polaris
domain doc.com
; try local name server
nameserver 127.0.0.1
; if local name server down, try these servers
nameserver 123.45.6.1
nameserver 111.22.3.5
; sort the addresses returned by gethostbyname(3c)
sortlist
130.155.160.0/255.255.240.0
130.155.0.0

The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain name in
the form:
domain domainname
Where domainname is the name registered with the Internet governing
bodies (as of
this writing, the InterNIC).
Note - No spaces or tabs are permitted at the end of the domain name.
Make sure
that you enter a hard carriage return immediately after the last
character of the
domain name.
The second line identifies the loopback name server in the form:
nameserver 127.0.0.1
Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of up to three DNS master,
secondary, or
cache-only name servers that the resolver should consult to resolve
queries. (Do not
list more than three primary or secondary servers.) Name server
entries have the
form:
nameserver IP_address
Where IP_address is the IP address of a primary or secondary DNS name
server. The
resolver queries these name servers in the order they are listed until
it obtains the
information it needs.
The fifth line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the address sortlist
in the form:
sortlist
addresslist
Where addresslist specifies the sort order of the addresses returned
by
gethostbyname(3c). In our example, gethostbyname returns the netmask
pair
130.155.160.0/255.255.240.0 ahead of the IP address 130.155.0.0.

I'm figuring out the last command, but will let you know

Gijs
(tnks to Robert Egloff)

2.
Ok, I've found it (with thanks to my collegue Marc Jadoul).
the last line in resolv.conf I've commented, since I'm not aware what
it does exactly, and how I sould apply it.
There is a file /etc/nsswitch.conf, whihc contains actually the
definition of how names should be reolved.
Because the installation did not succeed, all names are resolved
through files. It works now by simply adding "dns" after "files" for
the hosts line.

Works fine for me !

Gijs


> First, I admit my sins: I am a primarily NT Admin, trying to break
>into the *NIX world.

>Now, to the problems.  I just inherited admin-ning of a SparcServer 20
>and a SparcServer5, both running Solaris 2.6. Both installs are
>straight out of the box, done by another NT Admin.  IP works, my
>colleague didn't set the /etc/inet/hosts file, so local name pinging
>doesn't work, but that's fixable.

>Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
>where/ what file do I edit to set it.  I can ping IP's inside my local
>network, but that's about it.

>After I get that fixed, I have a copy of a Super Kernel Patch that
>needs to be installed prior to installing Oracle 8: I burned it onto CD
>from my home Win98PC last night, but it's telling me that something is
>corrupt when I try to un-tar it.  Any Suggestions ???

>Last newbie question, and possibly an underlying problem: on boot, I
>get large quantities of messages telling me that /var is out of
>filespace.  Suggestions, comments, or am I missing something REALLY
>basic ???

>--
>Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
>Member, Dogbert's New Ruling Class

>Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/
>Before you buy.

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by hume.spamfil.. » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00



Quote:> We're probably going to re-do the box anyway: any real-world
> suggestions for space alloc in install ????

Not really.  The default Solaris install will put the minimums to /, /usr,
and /var, and toss the rest of it into /export/home, which is automounted
over to /home.

I tend to put about 64 megs to /, 640M to 1G to /usr.  No less than 200M
to /var, and after that it depends on what I'm doing to choose allotments
between /usr/local, /opt, and /home.  If you allocate space to /home, you'll
have to comment out the 'home' line in /etc/auto_master to get the
automounter out of the way to mount /home properly.

If you're setting up an Oracle server, you might want to keep a slice (or,
even better, an entire disk) free to use as a raw partition for Oracle's
use.

A lot of people don't like separating /usr from /... it makes booting into
single user in some disaster situations harder, etc, all valid reasons.  
I separate them because it makes backing up / easier, I'd sooner run out of
disk while patching /usr alone than / and /usr together, etc.  I think
there's very good reasons for both approaches and in the end comes down to
a situational/personal preference.

--
Brandon Hume    - hume -> BOFH.Halifax.NS.Ca, http://WWW.BOFH.Halifax.NS.Ca/
                       -> Solaris Snob and general NOCMonkey

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Timothy J. L » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00



>Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
>where/ what file do I edit to set it.

To set the default gateway to 192.168.0.1 now:

        /usr/sbin/route add default 192.168.0.1

To make it automatically set to 192.168.0.1 at boot time, edit
/etc/defaultrouter to have 192.168.0.1 in it (you do not have to
reboot; just use the /usr/sbin/route command described above to
set it now).

To show the current routes, use "netstat -r" (or "netstat -rn" to
not do address->hosts lookups on the addresses).

Quote:>After I get that fixed, I have a copy of a Super Kernel Patch that
>needs to be installed prior to installing Oracle 8: I burned it onto CD
>from my home Win98PC last night, but it's telling me that something is
>corrupt when I try to un-tar it.  Any Suggestions ???

Usually, they are .tar.Z files or .zip files.  If it is a tar.Z file,
use something like

        /usr/bin/zcat filename.tar.Z | tar xvf -

If it is a .zip file, use something like

        /usr/bin/unzip filename.zip

One possibility is if you ftped the file with the Windows command
line ftp program, you may have inadvertantly ftped the file in ASCII
mode instead of binary mode.  Be sure that binary mode is set before
ftping.

You may want to get the entire recommended cluster for the version
of Solaris that you have from ftp://sunsolve.sun.com/pub/patches .

Quote:>Last newbie question, and possibly an underlying problem: on boot, I
>get large quantities of messages telling me that /var is out of
>filespace.  Suggestions, comments, or am I missing something REALLY
>basic ???

Use "/usr/bin/df -k" to find out disk space usage on the filesystems.
It is possible that the computer was installed with too small a /var
filesystem.  If the computer has not really been used, you may want
to just reinstall with filesystem sizes more appropriate for your use.

--
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Timothy J. Lee
Unsolicited bulk or commercial email is not welcome.
No warranty of any kind is provided with this message.

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Timothy J. L » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00





>>Question: what is the Solaris equivalent of a "default gateway", and
>>where/ what file do I edit to set it.

>To set the default gateway to 192.168.0.1 now:

>    /usr/sbin/route add default 192.168.0.1

Solaris needs a metric, so the command should be:

        /usr/sbin/route add default 192.168.0.1 0

--
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Timothy J. Lee
Unsolicited bulk or commercial email is not welcome.
No warranty of any kind is provided with this message.

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Keith A. Glas » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00





> > We're probably going to re-do the box anyway: any real-world
> > suggestions for space alloc in install ????

> Not really.  The default Solaris install will put the minimums
to /, /usr,
> and /var, and toss the rest of it into /export/home, which is
automounted
> over to /home.

> I tend to put about 64 megs to /, 640M to 1G to /usr.  No less than
200M
> to /var, and after that it depends on what I'm doing to choose
allotments
> between /usr/local, /opt, and /home.  If you allocate space to /home,
you'll
> have to comment out the 'home' line in /etc/auto_master to get the
> automounter out of the way to mount /home properly.

> If you're setting up an Oracle server, you might want to keep a slice
(or,
> even better, an entire disk) free to use as a raw partition for
Oracle's
> use.

> A lot of people don't like separating /usr from /... it makes booting
into
> single user in some disaster situations harder, etc, all valid
reasons.
> I separate them because it makes backing up / easier, I'd sooner run
out of
> disk while patching /usr alone than / and /usr together, etc.  I think
> there's very good reasons for both approaches and in the end comes
down to
> a situational/personal preference.

I cleared a lot of stuff, as suggested, from /var/adm, and the
filespace messages disappeared.

My routing problem is not yet fixed, netstat -r yields:

63.0.0.0  Unixlab     U  3  1   le0
224.0.0.0 Unixlab     U  3  0   le0
default   63.87.1.129 UG 0  0
localhost localhost   UH 0  379 lo0

Looks like we have more of a problem than I thought:

We have the 63.87.1.128 network, mask 255.255.255.192, with .129 as the
gateway and firewall....  Any idea what's wrong here ??  It LOOKS like
it thinks we own the entire 63.0.0.0 network.....

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/
Before you buy.

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Timothy J. L » Sat, 15 Jul 2000 04:00:00




Quote:>My routing problem is not yet fixed, netstat -r yields:

>63.0.0.0  Unixlab     U  3  1   le0
>224.0.0.0 Unixlab     U  3  0   le0
>default   63.87.1.129 UG 0  0
>localhost localhost   UH 0  379 lo0

>Looks like we have more of a problem than I thought:

>We have the 63.87.1.128 network, mask 255.255.255.192, with .129 as the
>gateway and firewall....  Any idea what's wrong here ??  It LOOKS like
>it thinks we own the entire 63.0.0.0 network.....

What does "/sbin/ifconfig le0" say?
Does "/sbin/ifconfig le0 netmask 255.255.255.192" fix the problem?

--
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Timothy J. Lee
Unsolicited bulk or commercial email is not welcome.
No warranty of any kind is provided with this message.

 
 
 

Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Keith A. Glas » Sun, 16 Jul 2000 04:00:00






> >My routing problem is not yet fixed, netstat -r yields:

> >63.0.0.0  Unixlab     U  3  1   le0
> >224.0.0.0 Unixlab     U  3  0   le0
> >default   63.87.1.129 UG 0  0
> >localhost localhost   UH 0  379 lo0

> >Looks like we have more of a problem than I thought:

> >We have the 63.87.1.128 network, mask 255.255.255.192, with .129 as
the
> >gateway and firewall....  Any idea what's wrong here ??  It LOOKS
like
> >it thinks we own the entire 63.0.0.0 network.....

> What does "/sbin/ifconfig le0" say?
> Does "/sbin/ifconfig le0 netmask 255.255.255.192" fix the problem?

Don't know. . .yet.  Will check when I get in on Monday morning.

Thanks for the assist: I'll master Solaris yet, despite my handicap of
starting with NT <g>
--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

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Newbie Probs in Solaris. . . .

Post by Keith A. Glas » Wed, 19 Jul 2000 04:00:00




Quote:> > What does "/sbin/ifconfig le0" say?
> > Does "/sbin/ifconfig le0 netmask 255.255.255.192" fix the problem?

> Don't know. . .yet.  Will check when I get in on Monday morning.

It turns out there IS no /sbin directory. . . .and in /etc/netmasks
I find a note saying that only default Class A, B, and C netmasks work
(this is an out-of-box 2.6 install, no patches....and without being
able to access the net, getting patches will be a problem...)

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

--
Keith A. Glass - Manassas, VA
SysAdmin, Techno-JOAT, asker of questions

Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/
Before you buy.