I am in need of veteran' knowledge I am designing a research

project and I would like to consider the type of analysis/statistics

that I should be using.

Back ground info

A little bit about the project I am a sport psychologist and my

hypothesis is that a well devised training program (use of proper

periodization theory) should increase self-efficacy (confidence):

both: state and trait self-efficacy.

-Furthermore, if the athletes are able to properly "cognitize" this

overall effect that they will have increased self-efficacy

(confidence).

I used three groups:

*All three groups trained 2x per week. The possible confounding

variables were controlled.

1/ The first group is the control group: They were given ONLY the TSCI

and SSCI scales at the beginning of the experiment; at the mid point

of the experiment (three weeks after the start of the experiment) and

at the end of the experiment (three weeks after the 2nd testing).

2/ The second group received a periodized training plan: This group

followed the exact same timing as the first group, in regards to the

administration of the Inventories. The exception being that they

received a training plan that was based on the Borg RPE scale. Each

training they were told the Borg level that they were to train at. The

exact difference between the two treatments (the first 3 weeks and the

second 3 weeks) were kept.

3/ The third group received the same exact periodized training plan as

well as kept a training log of their own Borg RPE level which they

reached: Again this group followed the same procedures as the other

two groups in regards to the application of the TSCI and SSCI

inventories. They were also told the Borg RPE level that they were to

train at. However, (the difference being) they kept their own Borg RPE

level which they attained during that training. For, example, they

might have been asked to train at level 17 but only trained at level

15. This is where the cognition comes into play.

-I administered the State and Trait confidence inventories (SSCI and

TSCI) to all three groups prior to the start of the experiment.

-I then gave the SSCI and TSCI at the mid point (after three weeks)

and at the end of the experiment (after three weeks)

Hypothesis

1) That there will be significant differences in confidence (for both

state and trait confidence) between all three groups. Between group

comparison.

2) There will be a significant difference in confidence levels (for

both state and trait confidence) within the training group and the

borg group.

3) That there will be significant differences in confidence between

gender within each group.

4) That the 3rd group (the Borg group) will differ in significance

levels of confidence dependant on whether or not they achieved their

training goals.

5) That the questions used to define self-efficacy' will support the

theory of self-efficacy.

Design

I use three measurements for the experiment:

*There is only one level for each of the scales. They both test only

trait (TSCI) or state (SSCI) confidence in sport.

1) Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI): This is a 13 question

inventory which uses a interval (Likert) scale that goes from 1-9.

2) State Sport Confidence Inventory (SSCI): That is a 13 question

inventory which uses a interval (Likert) scale that goes from 1-9.

3) Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (Borg RPE): This is

interval scale that goes from 6 to 20. It is a one shot scale that is

used directly after exercise. The scale is actually rated from 1-20

but the first 5 measures are used for levels less than actual movement

(for example, trance or sleep)

And I used 7 questions to further understand the relationship between

state and trait confidence and the use of Borg's scale for goal

setting.

1) Perceived success: A percentile score out of 100.

2) Years of training: Years

3) Actual success: Results scores: 3 points =1st place, 2 points = 2nd

place and 1 point = 3rd place.

4) # of tournaments: numerical

5) Competitions in and out of dojo: dummy coded. 1 = yes and 2 = no

6) Difference in set Borg levels and actual Borg level attained in

first training block (goal setting difference). Dummy coded: 1 = no

change (all goals met), 2 = negative change (did not reach goals) and

3 = positive change (exceeded goals set).

7) Difference in set Borg levels and actual Borg level attained in

second training block (goal setting difference). Dummy coded: 1 = no

change (all goals met), 2 = negative change (did not reach goals) and

3 = positive change (exceeded goals set).

Statistics Packages Available / Used

-SPSS 10.

-Student version EQS (I will be buying the full version soon)

-Student version of LISREL and HLM

-WinBugs (HLM)

Questions

So now I will place the questions

First Hypothesis. That there will be significant differences in

confidence (for both state and trait confidence) between all three

groups. Between group comparison.

-To test the main effect between the 3 groups, I used a Repeated

measures ANOVA.

Q: Is there are better way to analysis the variance between the

groups?

Second Hypothesis. There will be a significant difference in

confidence levels (for both state and trait confidence) within the

training group and the borg group.

-Again I used a repeated measures ANOVA.

Q: and again would another stat be better suited to judge differences.

I am wondering if I shouldn't use ANCOVA with some of the questions I

used to test for relationships to confidence. I have strong

theoretical knowledge in this area and wouldn't be taking a shot in

the dark as far as choosing the covariate.

Third Hypothesis. That there will be significant differences in

confidence between gender within each group.

-* I have many questions as to which method to use. I have split the

file and used Repeated measures ANOVA. However, I am also thinking

about either Discriminant Analysis or Logistic regression.

Q: Please advise as to what is the most useful statistic in regards to

the question above?

Fourth Hypothesis. That the 3rd group (the Borg group) will differ in

significance levels of confidence dependant on whether or not they

achieved their training goals.

-This is easily the most complex area of my analysis (for me). As I

have two dependant variables (the State confidence level or the Trait

confidence level and the Borg level. ***Note that the difference

between both levels of confidence are not important to me), I decided

to use MANOVA and then discriminant analysis.

-However, when I looked at the data I could categorize the Borg stats

as to whether or not they achieved the training goals set of not. I

could then Dummy code the sample into those who have exceeded their

goals and those that did not reach their goals (there was a code for

those who met their goals exactly, however no one was tabulated for

this code).

Q: After reviewing a good amount of the conversations/literature

regarding the possible research statistics to use I am in a utter

stat of confusion as there are some many methods to use which all

could answer my questions on this hypothesis.

Fifth Hypothesis. That the questions used to define self-efficacy'

will support the theory of self-efficacy.

-I started out with multiple regression analysis as I have a fairly

good amount of theoretical background to be able to decide which

method to use for inputting the predictor variables.

Q: I am currently learning about SEM and have the student versions of

the major packages. Would a SEM model be more useful than a regression

model?

I thank everybody who decides to help me with these answers in

advance. Thank-you for your time and consideration. (When I come to

sites like this, it truly amazes me how helpful people are).

Sincerely, Shaun Galloway